क्त्वा-प्रत्ययेन कृदन्तानि

In Sanskrit literature, one comes across many words formed by using this क्त्वा-प्रत्यय affixed to various धातु-s. Because this क्त्वा-प्रत्यय affixes to धातु-s, क्त्वा is basically a कृत्-प्रत्यय. Hence words formed by affixing क्त्वा to different धातु-s can be called as their क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s or simply क्त्वान्त-s.

सूत्रम् (1’1’40) क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः [bringing forward अव्ययम् from (1’1’37)] means “The words ending in the affixes क्त्वा, (तोसुन् and कसुन्), are अव्यय-s, indeclinables. (The तोसुँन्-प्रत्यय: and कसुँन्-प्रत्यय: are used only in the वेद-s”).

Most common use of क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s is clear from the meanings भूत्वा (= having been) कृत्वा (= having done) स्थित्वा (= having stood up) गत्वा (= having gone) नत्वा (= having bent OR having bowed) दृष्ट्वा (= having seen). In English grammar, the phrases such as “having seen”, contain the auxiliary “having” and the past passive participle “seen”. The क्त्वा-प्रत्यय serves both the functions, that of the auxiliary “having” and of the past passive participle.

In all such instances the subject is involved in two actions – one previous and another next. क्त्वा applies to the previous of the two actions. Importantly, the subject is common. Of course, this is summarized in सूत्रम् (3’4’21) – समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले meaning, “The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.

Note: द्वित्‍वमतन्‍त्रम् (द्वित्वम् अतन्त्रम्) The use of the dual number in समानकर्तृकयोः is non-consequential. It does not necessarily mean that the affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ applies only when there are exactly two actions. The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ can also be used when there are three or more actions – for example भुक्‍त्‍वा पीत्‍वा व्रजति meaning (he) goes after eating and drinking.

For some more information about क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s, it would be interesting to browse through the सूत्र-s, which have mention of क्त्वा. There are 5 such सूत्र-s obtaining from the अष्टाध्यायी word-index for क्त्वा (linked here).  

  1. सूत्रम् (1’2’22) पूङः क्त्वा च  specifies that for धातुः पूङ् “to purify”, the प्रत्यय क्त्वा affixes as क्त्वा only, i.e. without the drop=off of क्. Hence पू+क्त्वा = पूक्त्वा
  2. सूत्रम् (2’2’22) क्त्वा च  (with अनुवृत्ति-s of उपपद, तृतीयाप्रभृतीनि from previousसूत्र-s) specifies that one can affix क्त्वा to उपपद-words and to words with तृतीया and other cases, and that way compose compound words e.g. उच्चैःकृत्वा (in raised voice). Is it not interesting that, though क्त्वा is primarily a कृत्-प्रत्यय, it can be affixed to सुबन्त-s !
  3. सूत्रम् (3’4’18) अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा  specifies that one can use क्त्वान्त-s with अलम् and खलु for expressing the sense of prohibition. For example, अलं रुदित्वा (= enough with crying). रुदित्वा खलु (?) (= should be crying ? No, do not cry.)
  4. सूत्रम् – अव्ययेऽयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वाणमुलौ (3’4’59) (अव्यये अयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वा-णमुलौ) specifies that क्त्वा of धातुः कृ i.e. कृत्वा can be affixed to अव्यय-s to communicate something what is disagreeable or undesirable. For example नीचैःकृत्वा (speaking in low voice to one who is hard of hearing and likes to be spoken to in raised voice)
  5. सूत्रम् – क्त्वाऽपि छन्दसि (क्त्वा अपि छन्दसि) (7’1’38) specifies that in Vedic literature one finds use of क्त्वान्त-s in a manner, which does not conform to grammar of classical Sanskrit. e.g. In यजमानं परिधापयित्वा the composition of the word परिधापयित्वा should be, परिधाप्य as per grammar of classical Sanskrit (with ल्यप्-प्रत्यय instead of with क्त्वा-प्रत्यय, since there is उपसर्ग परि).
  6. One can form negative compounds also of क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s. For example गुरूनहत्वा (गुरून् अहत्वा) in गीता 2’5. Note अहत्वा means न हत्वा.

Do we have क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s for all धातु-s ? Basically to check whether any प्रत्यय may be affixed to all धातु-s, there are two सूत्र-s to take note of – (1) तिङ्-शित् सार्वधातुकम् (3’4’113) and (2) आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114).

Since क्त्वा is a कृत्-प्रत्यय, it is not a तिङ्-प्रत्यय. Also, its संज्ञा the name क्त्वा does not have any श् at its beginning. So, it is not a शित्. By both these considerations it does not qualify to be सार्वधातुक.

In turn क्त्वा qualifies to be considered an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय as per आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114). So, are there any धातु-s to which क्त्वा would not be affixed ? That would be a point to investigate.

Another aspect of this study should be to know the प्रक्रिया-s, by which क्त्वा affixes to different धातु-s.

Before that, it should be noted that the name क्त्वा has in its name, rather, in the beginning of it, क् as an इत्. This क् is an इत् as per लशक्वतद्धिते (1’3’8) and merits to be dropped off as per तस्य लोपः (1’3’9). So, practically क्त्वा would affix only as त्वा. A name having क् as an इत् would be called as किदन्वित (कित्-अन्वित) or as “a संज्ञा with कित् in it”. There are many such कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, which have कित्-संज्ञा-s, e.g. क्त, क्तवतु, क्तिन्, etc. Presently this study focuses on क्त्वा. Maybe, much of this study will come handy, when studying the others also.

It would be good  to identify some commonly known क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s by their formation styles =>

  1. It has been mentioned above that as per (1’2’22) for धातुः पू(ङ्) “to purify”, the प्रत्यय क्त्वा affixes as क्त्वा only, i.e. without the drop=off of क्. Hence पू+क्त्वा = पूक्त्वा. The सूत्रम् (1’2’22) is exclusively for धातुः पू.
    1. Meaning of धातुः पू as detailed in Apte’s dictionary is <पू 1, 4 Ā., 9 U. (पवते, पूयते, पुनाति, पुनीते, पूत; caus. पावयति; desid. पुपूषति, पिपविषते) 1 To make pure, cleanse, purify (lit. and fig.); अवश्यपाव्यं पवसे Bk.6.64; 3.18; पुण्याश्रमदर्शनेन तावदात्मानं पुनीमहे Ś.1; Ms.1.15;2. 62; Y.1.58; R.1.53; पवनः पवतामस्मि Bg.1.31. -2 To refine. -3 To clean from chaff, winnow; पूत्वा तृण- मिषीकां वा ते लभन्ते न किञ्चन Mb.12.237.4. -4 To expiate, atone for; दुर्मित्रासो हि क्षितयः पवन्ते Rv.7.28.4. -5 To discern, discriminate. -6 To think out, devise, invent. -7 To become clear or pure (Ātm.).>
  2. भू =>भूत्वा, कृ => कृत्वा, which seem to be straightforward with no प्रक्रिया involved, rather, with no change involved. See note below on this formation style #2
  3. पठ् => पठित्वा Note, धातु-s, which are inherently सेट् (स-इट् = with इट्), i.e. those, which admit or invite आगम of इ, will have आगम of इ before affixing त्वा. Hence पठ्+इ = पठि then पठि+त्वा => पठित्वा
    1. For धातु क्लिश् (= to suffer, to cause trouble) affixing त्वा happens with or without इडागम (आगम of इ) as per सूत्रम् (7’2’50) – क्लिशः क्त्वानिष्ठयोः (This सूत्रम् takes अनुवृत्ति-s of वा and इडागमः) Hence क्लिश्+त्वा => क्लिष्ट्वा or क्लिशित्वा
  4. गम् => गत्वा, नम् => नत्वा. Here म् has become lost (has suffered a लोपः). See note below on this formation style #4
  5. भिद् => भित्त्वा, छिद् => छित्त्वा Note, here द् has changed to त्
  6. मुच् / मुञ्च् => मुक्त्वा, भुज् / भुञ्ज् => भुक्त्वा Here च् and ज् have changed to क् and the nasal ञ् has become dropped off.
  7. दृश् => दृष्ट्वा i.e. श् changed to ष् and त्वा changed to ट्वा, rather त् changed to ट्. See also क्लिष्ट्वा at (3-a) above.  
  8. स्था => स्थित्वा Here आ has become (has changed to, has suffered an आदेश as) इ
  9. वस् => उषित्वा Here वस् has changed to उष् and an extra इ has come in (there is आगम of इ). In वस् changing to उष्, there are actually two changes – (a) व् has changed to उ (b) स् has changed to ष्. Change (a) is सम्प्रसारणम् as specified in सूत्रम् – इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम् (1’1’45)

For understanding formation style #2, as of भू =>भूत्वा, कृ => कृत्वा, there is an interesting सूत्रम् – न क्त्वा सेट् (1’2’18)

  • In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (3322) this सूत्रम् is detailed as सेट् (स-इट्) क्त्वा किन्न (कित् न) स्यात् । शयित्वा । सेट् किम् । कृत्वा
  • It would be good to paraphrase this as न क्त्वा (if) सेट्, (but) कित्,
  • meaning,  क्त्वा which is सेट् (स-इट् = with इट्), which admits or invites आगम of इ, shall not be क्त्वा, but it will be कित्, i.e. with क् dropped, i.e. only त्वा as in शयित्वा, कृत्वा.

Formation style #3 has been already detailed above only.

In respect of formation style #4 of गम् => गत्वा, नम् => नत्वा, where म् has become lost (has suffered a लोपः), there is

  1. सूत्रम् (6’4’37) अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति
  2. अनुदात्त-उपदेश-वनति-तनोति-आदीनाम् अनुनासिकलोपः झलि क्ङिति
  3. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (2428) this is detailed as अनुनासिक-इति लुप्तषष्ठीकं वनतीतरेषां विशेषणम् । अनुनासिकान्तानामेषां वनतेश्च लोपः स्याज्झलादौ क्ङिति परे । यमिरमिनमिगमिहनिमन्यतयोऽनुदात्तोपदेशाः । तनुक्षणुक्षिणुऋणुतृणुघृणुवनुमनुतोनोत्यादयः । हतः । घ्नन्ति ॥
  4. From the details in English translation of Ashtadhyayi by Shrish Chandra Vasu, one gets to understand that “When affixing a कित्-प्रत्यय, the final nasal अनुनासिक of धातु-s is elided, is dropped off, if the अनुनासिक is preceded by अनुदात्त vowel. For example म्+क्त्वा => ग(म्)त्वा => त्वा. Note, the vowel अ in is अनुदात्त. Hence it is marked with underscore.

So, क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s for different धातु-s would be obtained by different प्रक्रिया-s.

Basically however obtaining क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s is प्रक्रिया of धातु+त्वा. Of course, धातु-s are either vowel-ending or consonant-ending. So, forming क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s should be प्रक्रिया-s of vowel+consonant (अच्+हल् = अज्झल्-प्रक्रिया-s or consonant+consonant (हल् followed by हल् i.e. हल् हलि)-प्रक्रिया-s. By such token, the applicable rules should be संधि-नियम-s or  संधि-सूत्र-s only. As is obvious, consonant+consonant (हल् followed by हल् i.e. हल्-हलि)-प्रक्रिया-s should be as per संधि-सूत्र-s for व्यञ्जनसंधि-s.

But it should be also noted, that for धातु-s, one takes note of, not just the ending वर्ण, but also of the penultimate वर्ण called as उपधवर्ण, because the उपधवर्ण also has an influence in the प्रक्रिया.

शुभमस्तु !



Meta-rules about use of विभक्ति-s

What comes to mind as a good example to understand use of विभक्ति-s is the सूत्रम् – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् (8’3’32) Let us proceed to study this सूत्रम् by the ordained method. 

So, first पदच्छेद-s => ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङमुट् नित्यम् 

Next, let us identify the प्रातिपदिक-s and accordingly, their विभक्ति-वचन-analysis. 

ङमः (ङम् 6’1) ह्रस्वात् (ह्रस्व 5’1) अचि (अच् 7’1) ङमुट् (ङम्-उट् 1’1) नित्यम् (0’0)

  1. The प्रातिपदिक ङम् is a प्रत्याहार covering the अनुनासिक-s ङ् ण् न् Here, since ङमः is (ङम् 6’1), the sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति used here denotes what has to become “of ङम्”
  2. Next, since ह्रस्वात् is (ह्रस्व 5’1), the fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति connotes “when preceded by”. Here, when preceded by ह्रस्व. Since ह्रस्व is a characteristics of vowels, ह्रस्वात् means “when preceded by अ इ उ ऋ or लृ”
  3.  Next, in अचि (अच् 7’1) the प्रातिपदिक अच् is a प्रत्याहार covering all vowels. The seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति here connotes “when followed by”. So here अचि means “when followed by any vowel”.
  4. Next, we have ङमुट्, which is a compound word made up the components ङम् and उट्. Of these ङम्, as noted above, is a प्रत्याहार covering the अनुनासिक-s ङ् ण् न्. The second component उट् is a terminology used in अष्टाध्यायी for an आगम.  So, ङमुट् (ङम्-उट्) means ङम् come in as उट्, i.e there will be आगम of ङम्. 
  5. नित्यम् means always. 

Putting together the five ‘meaning’-statements we get overall meaning of the सूत्रम् as (1) of ङम् (2) when preceded by अ इ उ ऋ or लृ (3) when followed by any vowel (4) there will be आगम of ङम् (5) always. 

The सूत्रम् has been explained exactly like this and with examples by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. See Para 134 – ह्रस्वात्परो यो ङम् तदन्तं यत्पदं तस्मात्परस्याऽचो नित्यं ङमुडागमः स्यात् । प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा (प्रत्यङ् + आत्मा। सुगण्णीशः । सन्नच्युतः ॥

  • Note प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा is प्रत्यङ् + आत्मा Here ङ् is preceded by अ and is followed by आ. 
  • सुगण्णीशः is सुगण् + ईशः. Here, ण् is preceded by अ and is followed by ई.
  • सन्नच्युतः is सन् + अच्युतः. Here न् is preceded by अ and is followed by अ. Also in गीता 3’36 there is अनिच्छन्नपि (अनिच्छन्+अपि) न् is preceded by अ and is followed by अ.
  • In ईशावास्योपनिषत् at the beginning of second मन्त्र is the word कुर्वन्नेवेह (कुर्वन् एव इह). Note कुर्वन् + एव = कुर्वन्नेव. Here न् is preceded by अ and is followed by ए. 
  • For a counter example तान् + अहम् (गीता 16’19) does NOT become तान्नहम् because here न् is preceded by आ, which is not ह्रस्व. तान् + अहम् is simply तानहम्. Also पितॄन् + अथ becomes पितॄनथ (see गीता 1’26), because न् is preceded by ॠ which is दीर्घ. 
  • अस्मिन् + उद्यमे should be अस्मिन्नुद्यमे because न् is preceded by इ and is followed by उ. 

Are the meanings (fifth case = when preceded by), (sixth case = of), (seventh case = when followed by) so stated in अष्टाध्यायी ? 

Yes, in respect of fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य<1-1-67> which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 41 as पञ्चमीनिर्देशेन क्रियमाणं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य परस्य ज्ञेयम् ॥  

In respect of sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा <1-1-49> which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 38 as अनिर्धारितसम्बन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या । स्थानं च प्रसङ्गः ॥ This is translated into English at <http://panini.phil.hhu.de/panini/panini/browse/> as “The force of the genitive case in a sûtra is that of the phrase “in the place of” when no special rules qualify the sense of the genitive.”

In respect of seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य (1’1’66) which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 40 as सप्तमीनिर्देशेन विधीयमानं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य पूर्वस्य बोध्यम् ॥ This is translated into English at <http://panini.phil.hhu.de/panini/panini/browse/> as “When a term is exhibited in the seventh case in these sûtras, the operation directed, is to be understood as affecting the state of what immediately precedes that which the term denotes.”

Mentioned above are the main सूत्र-s for पञ्चमी षष्ठी and सप्तमी विभक्ति-s. But they are not all. Nevertheless they contain the essential concepts about विभक्ति-s of different words in a सूत्रम्. 

शुभमस्तु !




On-going study of उपनिषद्-s among my circle of friends prompts this study of लेट्-लकार.

As is well-known, तिङन्त-s of धातु-s are conjugated in 10 लकार-s. This is summarized in the verse =>

लट् वर्तमाने लेट् वेदे भूते लुङ्-लङ्-लिटस्तथा |

विध्याशिषौ लिङ्-लोटौ लुट्-लृट्-लृङ् च भविष्यति ||

The mention लेट् वेदे in the verse makes one curious to know what this लेट्-लकार is – is it a tense (past, present, future) or a mood (imperative, potential, benedictine, ..) ?

Is it discussed in अष्टाध्यायी ? Well, yes, there is सूत्रम् – लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) Obviously, since लिङ्-लकार is a लकार of mood, लेट्-लकार is also a लकार of mood. This सूत्रम् is discussed in Para 3424 in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी under the chapter #67 वैदिकी प्रक्रिया.

Dr. Pushpa Dikshit has discussed this लेट्-लकार in her YouTube व्याख्यानम् at <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lVPBTJboREE> from 4:09 minutes onward. In the portion prior to this point, she challenges the concept of सिद्धान्तकौमुदी discussing this लेट्-लकार in chapter #67 वैदिकी प्रक्रिया. She contends that one does not find in अष्टाध्यायी any such प्रक्रिया-s, which can be or should be called as वैदिकी प्रक्रिया-s, i.e. प्रक्रिया-s, which apply only to words in वैदिक texts.  Since her व्याख्यानम् is very valuable to understand लेट्-लकार in particular, I am trying to compile notes based on, what I can comprehend from her impeccable Sanskrit speech.

Importantly, she contends that लेट्-लकार is itself of two types सार्वधातुक and आर्धधातुक. The सूत्रम् – सिब्बहुलं लेटि (3’4’34) specifies that one finds in लेट्-लकार, extensive use of the suffix सिप्. This suffix सिप्, she contends, is itself आर्धधातुक, maybe, because, being one out of the first nine तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s [see सूत्रम् 3’4’78 – (तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्मिप्वस्मस्)-(आताम्थास्आथाम्ध्वम्इड्वहिमहिङ्)] > सिप्-प्रत्यय applies only to परस्मैपदी धातु-s.

She makes an interesting proposition, that with two types of लिङ्-लकार-s and two types of लेट्-लकार-s, total number of लकार-s be considered to be twelve. Among the ten लकार-s used in लौकिक संस्कृत, only 4 लकार-s, लट्-लोट्-लङ्-(विधि)लिङ् are सार्वधातुक. One may add as fifth सार्वधातुक लकार, the सिब्लेट्, i.e. that लेट्, when the तिङ्-प्रत्यय is not सिप्. Accordingly, rest 7 लकार-s लिट्-लुट्-लृट्-सिब्लेट्-(आशीर्)लिङ्-लुङ्-लृङ् become आर्धधातुक लकार-s. 

But this contention to consider सिब्लेट् as आर्धधातुक seems to be open to argument. Actually, the thought of classifying लकार-s into classes as सार्वधातुक and आर्धधातुक, itself seems to be questionable, because all लकार-s take तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s and all तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are सार्वधातुक, as per तिङ्-शित् सार्वधातुकम् (3’4’113). 

Anyway, the next point of curiosity certainly is to know for what sense, as tense or as mood does one find use of लेट्-लकार in वैदिक texts. Of course लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) and उपसंवादाशङ्कयोश्च (3’4’8) clarify that. From लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) one can deduce that, in whichever sense लिङ्-लकार is used in लौकिक संस्कृत, in all those senses, one may find use of लेट्-लकार in वैदिक texts. The senses in which लिङ्-लकार is used in लौकिक संस्कृत are many. Just to quote a few =>

  1. 3’3’134 आशंसावचने लिङ्
  2. 3’3’143 विभाषा कथमि लिङ् च
  3. 3’3’144 किंवृत्ते लिङ्लृटौ
  4. 3’3’147 जातुयदोर्लिङ्
  5. 3’3’152 उताप्योः समर्थयोर्लिङ्
  6. 3’3’156 हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ्
  7. 3’3’157 इच्छार्थेषु लिङ्लोटौ
  8. 3’3’158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् + 3’3’159 लिङ् च
  9. 3’3’161 विधिनिमन्‍त्रणामन्‍त्रणाधीष्‍टसंप्रश्‍नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्
  10. 3’3’167 कालसमयवेलासु तुमुन् + 3’3’168 लिङ् यदि
  11. 3’3’172 शकि लिङ् च
  12. 3’3’173 आशिषि लिङ्लोटौ

Further next point would be to understand the प्रक्रिया-s which dictate conjugations, i.e. obtaining तिङन्त-s in लेट्-लकार for different धातु-s. As is the case of any लकार, in लेट्-लकार also there would be 9 तिङन्त-s in परस्मैपदम् and 9 तिङन्त-s in आत्मनेपदम्. The conjugation प्रक्रिया-s are dictated by सूत्र-s –

  1. लेटोऽडाटौ (3’4’94) – लेटः अट्-आटौ meaning, there would be अट् (अ) and आट् (आ) आगम-s in लेट् Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – तारिषत् (ऋ. 1’25’12) मन्दिषत् | पताति दिद्युत् (ऋ. 7’25’1) उदधिं च्यावयाति (तै. सं. 3’5’5’2)
  2. आत ऐ (3’4’95) – आत् (आ) would suffer आदेश as ऐ Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – मन्त्रयैते, मन्त्रयैथे, करवैते करवैथे
  3. वैतोऽन्यत्र (3’4’96) – Or एत् (ए) will suffer आदेश at other instances – Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – अते=>अतै, अन्ते=>अन्तै, असे=>असै, अध्वे=>अध्वै | “सप्ताहानि शासै | अहमेव पशूनामीशै (काठ. सं. 25’1)
  4. इतश्च लोपः परस्मैपदेषु (3’4’97) – In परस्मैपद-conjugations there would be deletion of इ-s. Note, here इत् means इ only and not what इत्-s are detailed in सूत्र-s (13’2) to (1’3’8). So the इ-s in परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय-s तिझिसिमि will suffer deletion. Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – अति=>अत् अन्ति=> अन् असि=>अस् (अः) अमि=> अम् 
  5. स उत्तमस्य (3’4’98) – From प्रत्यय-s वस्मस् of उत्तमपुरुष their स्-endings will get deleted. 

May I stop here as a preliminary study or brief overview of लेट्-लकार.

शुभमस्तु |



Flow-Chart for इत्-s

After learning the सूत्र-s related to इत्-s, one should be able to detect the इत्-s, if any are present in the शिवसूत्र-s or in any word in अष्टाध्यायी or in धातुपाठ.

One Mr. Ramakrishnan Venkateshwaran suggested that one may be able to prepare a Flow-Chart for this. I readily grabbed the suggestion and have successfully composed the flow-chart. For the sake of easy readability, I have made two images – Part 1/2 and Part 2/2 as below.

to check any वर्ण in शिवसूत्र or अष्टाध

to check any वर्ण in शिवसूत्र or अष्टाध शुभमस्तु !


अष्टाध्याय्याः पदशः अभ्यासः – प्रास्ताविकम्

|| अष्टाध्याय्याः पदशः अभ्यासः – प्रास्ताविकम् ||

I have been studying अष्टाध्यायी in various ways. One way to study may be by doing पदशः अभ्यासः. It may end up becoming a dictionary of अष्टाध्यायी. Also, since अष्टाध्यायी is a standard reference book of Sanskrit grammar, would it be different from “Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar” authored jointly by महामहोपाध्याय काशिनाथशास्त्री अभ्यंकर and जयदेव मोहनलाल शुक्ल ? I do not know at this stage.

When doing पदशः अभ्यासः, I had to bear in mind the meaning of पद itself.

  • In the tradition of Sanskrit grammar, there has been a thought, attributed to यास्काचार्य, that पद-s in Sanskrit are of four types – (1) नाम (2) आख्यात (3) उपसर्ग (4) निपात.
  • In अष्टाध्यायी there is a definition in सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14 सि 29 संज्ञाप्रकरणे) meaning पद is “that which has सुप् or तिङ्-ending”.
  • In the introduction in their book, Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar संस्कृत-व्याकरणस्य शब्दकोशः following श्लोक-s are mentioned, summarizing what all studies काशिनाथशास्त्री अभ्यंकर and जयदेव मोहनलाल शुक्ल did in compiling their कोश.

प्रातिशाख्य-महाभाष्य-कौमुदी-काशिका-दिकान् / ग्रन्थान् वाक्यपदीयांश्च अभ्यस्य  श्रमपूर्वकम् //1// ग्रन्थानां ग्रन्थकाराणां नामानि प्रत्ययांस्तथा / विशिष्टशास्त्रीयार्थस्य वाचकान् पारिभाषिकान् //2// शब्दान् समीक्ष्य संज्ञादीन् आदेशान् आगमांस्तथा / यदारब्धं संग्रथनं कालात् प्राक् सुबहोर्मया //3// अभ्यंकरोपाह्वकुले वासुदेवस्य सूनुना / काशिनाथाभिधेनेदं कोषरूपं समापितम् //4//

As mentioned in these श्लोक-s, words in अष्टाध्यायी are पारिभाषिक-s, संज्ञा-s, प्रत्यय-s, आदेश-s, आगम-s, etc.

Certainly they put in hard labor श्रमपूर्वकम् in compiling the कोश. And the work spread over number of years “started long time ago” सुबहोः कालात् प्राक् आरब्धम् !

By the way, I also came across a mention that in the various सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी, there are 156 अव्ययानि 1574 प्रथमान्तानि 34 द्वितीयान्तानि 115 तृतीयान्तानि 3 चतुर्थ्यन्तानि 1308 पञ्चम्यन्तानि 1005 षष्ठ्यन्तानि 1349 सप्तम्यन्तानि कुलतः 5544 पदानि of these types.

सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14 सि 29 संज्ञाप्रकरणे) warrants that अचः and अचि be treated as two different पद-s, though they are सुबन्त-s of one and the same basic प्रातिपदिकम् “अच्”.

In compound words, there would be more than one पद-s. For example सूत्रम् – स्वौजसमौट्….. (4’1’2 सि 183 अजन्तपुंल्लिङ्गप्रकरणे) is a single word, but contains 21 components and सूत्रम् – तिप्तस्झि… (3’4’78 सि 2154 “तिङन्ते भ्वादयः”-इत्यस्मिन् प्रकरणे) also is a single word, but contains 18 components !

For my study, I would take both अचः and अचि together. So this study shall rather be प्रातिपदिकशः than पदशः. But I may have to treat components in compound words separately. 

Actually अष्टाध्यायी does contain some तिङन्त-s also, though very few. Those studies will rather be धातुशः than तिङन्तशः.

*Note, the mention “1’4’14 सि 29 संज्ञाप्रकरणे”, contains the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क 1’4’14 followed by the paragraph-number सि 29 in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी and also title of the प्रकरणम् the chapter, e.g. संज्ञाप्रकरणे.

This note is, as such, a general introductory on my plan for this study.

महान्तः संदर्भग्रन्थाः Major References –

  1. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी – वासुदेव-लक्ष्मणशास्त्री-पणशीकर-महाभागेन संपादिता /
  2. पाठक-चित्राव-वर्ययोः रचितः अष्टाध्यायी-शब्दकोशः (Word Index) <https://ia600307.us.archive.org/27/items/5990010905076WordIndexToPaniniSutraPathaAndParisistasVidyanidhiSiddheshvarshastr/Pathak%20and%20Chitrao%2C%20Word%20Index_1935%20DLI5990010905076.pdf> अत्र प्रापणीयः
  3. अभ्यंकर-शुक्ल-वर्ययोः Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar संस्कृत-व्याकरणस्य शब्दकोशः /<http://lukashevichus.info/knigi/abhyankar_shukla_sans_gram_dic.pdf> अत्र प्रापणीयः /

शुभमस्तु !


अष्टाध्यायीपदाभ्यासे – 1

अष्टाध्यायीपदाभ्यासे (1) अ-इति पदम्   

(अधः सूत्रक्रमाङ्कस्य पश्चात् यः सि.-क्रमाङ्कः सः सिद्धान्तकौमुद्याः)  

I just got an idea of studying every पदम् in अष्टाध्यायी, to understand, in what all shades, one comes across the पदम् in अष्टाध्यायी. To compile the study, it was easier to do it mostly in Sanskrit.

It was logical to start the study with the study of अ-इति पदम्. I got great help from Ref. (3) in particular. But my arrangement is different. Hope, it is better articulated.

संदर्भग्रन्थाः Bibliography –

  1. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी – वासुदेव-लक्ष्मणशास्त्री-पणशीकर-महाभागेन संपादिता /
  2. पाठक-चित्राव-वर्ययोः रचितः अष्टाध्यायी-शब्दकोशः (Word Index) <https://ia600307.us.archive.org/27/items/5990010905076WordIndexToPaniniSutraPathaAndParisistasVidyanidhiSiddheshvarshastr/Pathak%20and%20Chitrao%2C%20Word%20Index_1935%20DLI5990010905076.pdf&gt; अत्र प्रापणीयः
  3. अभ्यंकर-शुक्ल-वर्ययोः Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar संस्कृत-व्याकरणस्य शब्दकोशः /<http://lukashevichus.info/knigi/abhyankar_shukla_sans_gram_dic.pdf&gt; अत्र प्रापणीयः /

  1. वर्णमालायाः शिवसूत्रेष्वपि प्रथमः वर्णः – अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि (गीता 10’33)
  2. कण्ठ्यः स्वरः
  3. अत् – अत् = अ-इत्येव / अत् इति अष्टाध्याय्यां पारिभाषिका संज्ञा / अत् इति शब्दः अनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / तस्य विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया /
  4. उच्चाराः – अकारस्य उच्चारणम् अष्टादशम् – मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः (1’1’8 सि. 9) ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (1’2’27 सि. 4) उच्चैरुदात्तः (1’2’29 सि. 5) नीचैरनुदात्तः (1’2’30 सि. 6) समाहारः स्वरितः (1’2’31 सि. 7) इत्येतैः सूत्रैः /
  5. अवसानसूचकः – अ अ इति (8’4’68, सि. 11) / एकस्य विवृतत्वात् अपरस्य संवृतत्वात् संध्यभावः /
  6. आगमः (अट्) – लुङ्-लङ्-लृङ्-क्ष्वडुदात्तः (6’4’71, सि. 2206) / लुङ्-लङ्-लृङ्-क्षु अट् उदात्तः / लुङ्-लङ्-लृङ्-एषु परेषु अङ्गस्य अडागमः स्यात् स च उदात्तः /
    1. अट् इति आगमः एकः न तु प्रत्याहारः /
    2. अडागमस्य उल्लेखः अनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / अतः तस्य विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /
  7. अ-कारस्य आदेशाः
    1. वृद्धिरेचि (6’1’88 सि. 72) – यथा देवस्य ऐश्वर्यम् इति देवैश्वर्यम् (देव+ऐश्वर्यम्)
    2. आद्गुणः (6’1’87 सि. 69) – अवर्णादचि परे पूर्वपरयोरेको गुणादेशः स्यात्संहितायाम् / यथा उपेन्द्रः (उप+इन्द्रः)
    3. अकारस्य वृद्धिः आकारः / यथा मम ⇒ मामकः (मम अयमिति मामकः क-इति तद्धित-प्रत्ययः) / गङ्गा ⇒ गाङ्गमम्बु (गाङ्गम् अम्बु), गङ्गायाः इदमिति गाङ्गम् / *गाङ्गम्-इति पदस्य सिद्धिः श्रीमता एच्-एन्-भट-महोदयेन मह्यं विविक्ता / कतिचिद्दीर्घम् विवेचनं तेषाम् / अत्र न सुकरम् / 
    4. अकारः आकारस्य गुणः / यथा गङ्गा ⇒ सप्तगङ्गम् (गङ्गा सप्तधा यत्र तत् सप्तगङ्गम् क्षेत्रम्) *श्रीमता एच्-एन्-भट-महोदयेन मह्यं विविक्तं यत् सप्तगङ्गम् इत्यत्र गुणादेशः न / अतोऽम् (7’1’24 सि. 309) इति सूत्रानुसारेण अतः (अकारस्य) अम्-इति आदेशः / कतिचिद्दीर्घम् विवेचनं तेषाम् / अत्र न सुकरम् / 
  8. प्रत्ययः – अ-इति प्रत्ययः
    1. अ प्रत्ययात् (3’3’102, सि. 3279) – प्रत्ययान्तधातुभ्यः इच्छार्थे स्त्रियाम् अ-प्रत्ययात् (भवति) / अ-वर्णः प्रत्ययः इति युज्यते इति सूचितम् अस्मिन् सूत्रे / यथा कृ ⇒ (सनि) चिकीर्ष ⇒ (स्त्री.) चिकीर्षा / पुत्रकाम्य (पुं.) ⇒ पुत्रकाम्या (स्त्री.) /
    2. अ साम्प्रतिके (4’3’9, सि. 1379) – मध्यार्थे अ-प्रत्ययेन मध्यशब्दात् यथा नातिदीर्घं नातिह्रस्वं मध्यं काष्ठम् / नात्युत्कृष्टो नात्यवकृष्टो मध्यः वैयाकरणः / मध्या स्त्री /
    3. अ च (4’3’31, सि. 1404) – अमावास्या-शब्दात् अकारप्रत्ययः स्यात् /
    4. लुङ्-लकारस्य लक्षणे चङ् (3’1’48 सि. 2312) अङ् (3’1’52 सि. 2438) /
    5. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः श (3’1’77 सि. 2534) शप् (3’1’68 सि. 2167) इति विकरणप्रत्ययौ /
    6. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः कृत्-प्रत्ययाः अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, क, ख घञ् ट, ड, ण  इत्यनेके तृतीये अध्याये /
    7. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः तद्धित-प्रत्ययाः अच्, अञ्, अण् अ इत्यनेके चतुर्थ-पञ्चमाध्याययोः /
    8. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः उणादि-प्रत्ययाः अन्, अल् क, कन्, ट, टन्, ड  इत्यनेके /
    9. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः समासान्तिकाः अ, अच्, डच्, टच्, षच् ष अप् अञ्, (5’4’73 तः 5’4’121 पर्यन्तेषु)
    10. प्रत्येकस्य प्रत्ययस्य विवेचनमनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / अतः तेषां विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /
  9. प्रत्याहारेषु – अ-वर्णः अधोनिर्दिष्टेषु पञ्चसु प्रत्याहारेषु /
    1. अक्अक्-इत्यस्मिन् प्रत्याहारे अ-इ-उ-ऋ-लृ-इति वर्णाः यथा सूत्रे -अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6’1’101, सि. 85) – सवर्ण-संहितायां सर्वेषाम् एकादेशेन दीर्घः एव / अत्र अ+अ, अ+आ, आ+अ, आ+आ एतासु सर्वासु संहितासु आ-इत्येव एकादेशः / तथैव इ-कारस्य, उ-कारस्य, ऋ-कारस्य लृ-कारस्य च /
    2. अच् – अच्- प्रत्याहारे सर्वे स्वराः यथा सूत्रे – नाज्झलौ (1’1’10, सि. 13) – न अच्-हलौ /
    3. अण् – अण्-प्रत्याहारे
      1. प्रायः अ-इ-उ-वर्णाः / यथा सूत्रे – अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः (1’1’69, सि. 14) – अण्-उत्-इत्-सवर्णस्य च अप्रत्ययः /
      2. अथवा सर्वे स्वराः अन्तस्थाश्च – यथा सूत्रे –
    4. अल् – यथा सूत्रे – अलोन्त्यस्य (1’1’52 सि. 42) – अल्-इति प्रत्याहारे सर्वे वर्णाः /
    5. अश् – अश्-प्रत्याहारे सर्वे स्वराः सर्वे अन्तस्थाः अनुनासिकाः सर्वाणि मृदुव्यञ्जनानि च / यथा सूत्रे – भोभगोऽघोऽपूर्वस्य योऽशि (8’3’17)
    6. प्रायः सर्वे प्रत्याहाराःबहुषु सूत्रेषु  / अतः तेषां विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /
  10. संहितायाम्
    1. अच्-सन्धिषु
      1. अ-इति पूर्ववर्णः / यथा
        1. आद्गुणः (6’1’87 सि. 69) – अ-वर्णात् अचि परे पूर्वपरयोः गुणैकादेशः / यथा उपेन्द्रः /
        2. वृद्धिरेचि (6’1’85, सि. 72) / वृद्धिः एचि / आत्-परे एच्-वर्णेषु सत्सु वृद्धिः / यथा कृष्णैकत्वम् देवैश्वर्यम् /
        3. एत्येधत्यूठ्सु (6’1’86, सि. 73) (काशिकायाम् सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां च 6’1’89 ?) – एति-एधति-ऊठ्-इत्येतेषु ये आदिवन्तः अचः तेषाम् पूर्वं अ-वर्णे सति पूर्वपरयोः एकादेशः वृद्धिश्च / यथा उप+एति = उपैति, प्र+ऊढ = प्रौढ /
      2. अ-इति परवर्णः / यथा
        1. इको यणचि (6’1’77, सि. 47) – इकः यण् अचि / अचि इति अचः परवर्णाः इति निर्देशः /
          1. अत्र अच् इति अकारान्वितः प्रत्याहारः / एतादृशाः अ-कारान्विताः अनेके प्रत्याहाराः / किञ्चित् विवेचनं निम्नम् /
        2. एचोऽयवायावः (6’1’78 सि. 61)
        3. एङः पदान्तादति (6’1’109 सि. 86) – पदान्तात् एङः अति परे पूर्वरूपम् एकादेशः स्यात् / यथा हरेऽत्र विष्णोऽव / अत्र अ-कारस्य लोपः एव / तथापि अयं लोपः “लोपः शाकल्यस्य (8’3’19 सि. 67)” इति सूत्रेण न / अ-कारदर्शकः अवग्रहः प्रायः युज्यते तथापि योजनीयः एव इति न /
    2. हल्-सन्धिषु
      1. कस्यापि व्यञ्जनस्य परे यः अकारः सः तत् व्यञ्जनम् अकारयुक्तं करोति / यथा अहम् + अस्मि = अहमस्मि /
        1. अकारपूर्वं व्यञ्जनं यदि ङ् वा ण् वा न् वा तदा तेषामेव आगमः तेन द्वित्तम् / अत्र सूत्रम् “ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् (8’3’32 सि. 134) / यथा कुर्वन् + अस्मि = कुर्वन्नस्मि /
    3. विसर्गसन्धिषु
      1. अ-इति पूर्ववर्णः परवर्णः च ⇒ (अ + विसर्गस्य उ = ओ) / परवर्णे स्थितस्य अकारस्य लोपः / लुप्तः अकारः अवग्रहेण निर्दिश्यते / यथा सः + अहम् = सोऽहम्
      2. अ-इति पूर्ववर्णः अन्यः कोऽपि स्वरः परवर्णः ⇒ विसर्गस्य लोपः / यथा अर्जुनः + उवाच = अर्जुन उवाच
      3. अन्यः कोऽपि स्वरः पूर्ववर्णः अ-इति परवर्णः ⇒
        1. विसर्गस्य लोपः / यथा बालाः + अत्र = बाला अत्र “लोपः शाकल्यस्य (8’3’19 सि. 67)” इति सूत्रेण /
        2. विसर्गस्य य-कारः “भोभगोऽघोऽपूर्वस्य योऽशि (8’3’17)” इति सूत्रेण / यथा बालाः अत्र = बालाय् अत्र
          1. बालाय् अत्र = बालायत्र (?) / बालाय्यत्र (?)  
  11. नञर्थे समासेषु
    1. नञ्-समासेषु (नलोपो नञः 4’3’73 सि. 757) / यथा अप्रत्ययः (1’1’69, सि. 69) अकर्मकः [अतिङ् (कृदतिङ्ग् (3’1’93, सि. 374)] एतादृशाः अनेके सामासिकाः शब्दाः अनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / तेषां विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /  

अस्मिन्नभ्यासे (1’1’8 सि. 9), (1’1’10, सि. 13) (1’1’52 सि. 42) (1’1’69, सि. 14) (1’2’27 सि. 4), (1’2’29 सि. 5), (1’2’30 सि. 6), (1’2’31 सि. 7) (3’1’48 सि. 2312) (3’1’52 सि. 2438) (3’1’68 सि. 2167) (3’1’77 सि. 2534) (3’1’93, सि. 374) (3’3’102, सि. 3279) (4’3’9, सि. 1379) (4’3’31, सि. 1404) (4’3’73 सि. 757) (5’4’73 तः 5’4’121 पर्यन्तानि) (6’1’77, सि. 47) (6’1’78 सि. 61) (6’1’85, सि. 72) (6’1’87 सि. 69) (6’1’88 सि. 72) (6’1’86/89(?), सि. 73) (6’1’101, सि. 85) (6’1’109 सि. 86) (6’4’71, सि. 2206) (8’3’17) (8’3’19 सि. 67) (8’3’32 सि. 134) (8’4’68, सि. 11) एतैः त्रिंशदधिकैः (30+) सूत्रैः विवेचनम् /

शुभमस्तु !


संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी

संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी

On Tuesday Dec. 12, 2017, I attended Dr. Malhar Kulkarni’s व्याख्यानम् on सूत्र-s 1’1’20 to 1’1’23.

I indulged in further deliberation of my own, with a focus on सूत्र-s 1’1’20 and 1’1’22 . This post is loud thinking of that deliberation. The two सूत्र-s are दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20) and तरप्-तमपौ घः (1’1’22). Both of these are  संज्ञासूत्र-s, because सूत्रम् – दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20) defines what all is denoted by the संज्ञा घु.  The other सूत्रम् – तरप्-तमपौ घः (1’1’22) defines what all is denoted by the संज्ञा घः 

As is obvious, संज्ञा घु has many elements encompassed by दाधा excepting of course दाप्. The point is “संज्ञा घु has many elements”. That became the clue for my deliberation and I proceeded to check whether most संज्ञा-s have more-than-one elements. And lo ! That appears to be THE fact !

In mathematics, entity having a number of elements is called a “set”. By that token संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी seem to be names given to sets. All प्रत्याहार-s are basically sets and they connote names or संज्ञा-s of respective sets. For example, अच् is the name of the set, which has all vowels as its elements; हल् is the name of the set, which has all consonants as its elements. Even the very first सूत्रम् – वृद्धिरादैच् (1’1’1) defines the संज्ञा “वृद्धिः” which has the elements आत् and ऐच्; Actually ऐच् is a sub-set having elements ऐ and औ; आत् is the other sub-set of वृद्धिः, and has only a single element आत्. So वृद्धिः is a “union” of two subsets आत् and ऐच्. 

Set theory in mathematics recognizes even null sets. I wonder, whether अष्टाध्यायी has any संज्ञा, which is a null set !

In सूत्रम् – दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20), exception of दाप् is like intersection of a set to leave an element out. 

I wonder whether relating concepts of set theory can give a good insight into the structure of अष्टाध्यायी. 

I feel like complimenting myself for the deliberation and observation that संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी are names given to sets. Elements of sets are detailed primarily in two different ways. The सूत्र-s such as वृद्धिरादैच् (1’1’1), दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20), etc. detail their elements in the particular संज्ञासूत्र itself. But elements of some सूत्र-s such as सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (1’1’27) are better detailed in गणपाठ. In this context it would be interesting to see my post “What is गणपाठ ?“.

The third way of identifying a संज्ञा and detailing its elements is to do that in different सूत्र-s. A good example is the सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14). There are two संज्ञा-s included here सुप् and तिङ्. Elements of सुप् are detailed in स्वौजसमौट्-छष्टाभ्याम्-भिस्-ङे-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसि-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसोसाम्-ङि-ओस्-सुप् (4’1’2). Elements of तिङ् are detailed in तिप्-तस्-झि-सिप्-वस्-थ-मिब्-वस्-मस्-ताताम्-झ-थासाथाम्-ध्व-मिड्-वहि-महिङ् (3’4’78). 

Actually सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14) is interesting, because it also contains and defines a third संज्ञा viz. पदम्. Whatever is सुबन्त or तिङन्त, i.e. whatever has in its ending सुप् or तिङ्, i.e. whatever has either a सुप् or तिङ् suffix, is a पदम्. And as defined by this सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14),  पदम् is a set having two sub-sets सुप् and तिङ्.

  • On a different note, I am a bit concerned of this definition of पदम् as सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्. This is because there are many पद-s, which are neither सुबन्त nor तिङन्त, e. g. क्त्वान्त- or तुमन्त-कृदन्त-s. To my mind, these are also पद-s, because they qualify the सूत्रम् – समर्थः पदविधिः (2’1’1). They are, for sure, समर्थ, meaningful and significant.

Anyway, we can grant that संज्ञा is a terminology of Sanskrit grammar. If so, one wonders what is the terminology in English grammar equivalent to संज्ञा ? In English grammar, among parts of speech, there are nouns and pronouns. Since pronouns are same as सर्वनामानि, one can think that नामानि would correspond with nouns. Since संज्ञा-s are also given names, संज्ञा also seemingly corresponds with ‘noun’. 

Looking at स्वौजसमौट्-छष्टाभ्याम्-भिस्-ङे-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसि-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसोसाम्-ङि-ओस्-सुप् (4’1’2) and तिप्-तस्-झि-सिप्-वस्-थ-मिब्-वस्-मस्-ताताम्-झ-थासाथाम्-ध्व-मिड्-वहि-महिङ् (3’4’78), it can be thought that elements of सुप् and तिङ् enumerated in these सूत्र-s are not संज्ञा-s; they are nouns नामानि of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s and तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.  I guess, this line of thinking can help distinguish between नामानि and संज्ञा-s. Then we can say that English grammar has nothing equivalent to संज्ञा-s.

That is some loud thinking about संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी. 

शुभमस्तु !


Comprehensive study of grammar of Sanskrit

What all must be studied for complete study of grammar of Sanskrit ? One general impression is that one should study and then the job is done. But there is a श्लोक

अनधीते महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ।
अधीते तु महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ॥

Here, the word पदमञ्जरी usually refers to अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि.  So, here we have reference to two books – अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि and महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि respectively. Original of the two is अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि, though, in this श्लोक more credence is accorded to study of महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि.

However in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, भट्टोजी दीक्षित pays his tributes as मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य. This seems to be so, because Sanskrit grammar is itself known as त्रिमुनि-व्याकरणम्. The त्रिमुनि-s are पाणिनि, वररुचि कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि  Contribution of वररुचि कात्यायन is by his वृत्ति-s, which often explain सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by supplementary सूत्र-s, as if अष्टाध्यायी becomes more complete by the supplementary सूत्र-s in वृत्ति-s of वररुचि कात्यायन. Because of his वृत्ति-s वररुचि कात्यायन is also known as the वार्त्तिक (वृत्तीनां कर्ता).

अष्टाध्यायी is the base both for महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि and वृत्ति-s of वररुचि कात्यायन. That is why it is said in the above श्लोक, that if one studies महाभाष्य, there is no need to study अष्टाध्यायी separately.

Actually language has two aspects – (1) words and (2) using the words to make a meaningful expression. The second part “using the words to make a meaningful expression” often becomes the exercise of composing a sentence.

From what I have understood, अष्टाध्यायी’s focus is on words, rather on formatting of words. This is so, because in Sanskrit every word to be used in a sentence, rather, for any word to be worthy of use in a sentence, it has to be a formatted word.

Second aspect of Sanskrit is freedom from syntax. In Sanskrit the formatting of words makes the words so much self-same, that they can be placed anywhere, in any sequence or order. Although the word order is most commonly the Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order, that is not any rigid word order.

Formatting of words is best detailed in अष्टाध्यायी. But study of अष्टाध्यायी should not be understood as study only of the eight chapters, four quarters of each chapter. There are important परिशिष्ट-s, which are part and parcel of अष्टाध्यायी. They are गणपाठः, धातुपाठः, लिङ्गानुशासनम्, उणादिसूत्राणि, फिट्सूत्राणि, पाणिनीया शिक्षा.

Most books on अष्टाध्यायी detail सूत्राणि in the thirty-two quarters in अष्टाध्यायी. But to make the study of Sanskrit grammar complete, one must study also all the परिशिष्ट-s.

One method of study has been as propounded in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित. But सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is said to be a composition of 17th century, just about 400 years old. There certainly have been many studies of अष्टाध्यायी, evidenced by many commentaries, called as वृत्ति-s, some well-known among them being काशिका-वृत्तिः, न्यासः, मनोरमा, बाल-मनोरमा, प्रौढ-मनोरमा, तत्त्व-बोधिनी, etc.

Although Sanskrit offers quite some freedom of syntax, there have been some definite concepts of composing sentences. These are possibly best detailed in वाक्पदीयम् of भर्तृहरि, said to be step brother of राजा विक्रमादित्य of 5th AD.

Another aspect of Sanskrit language, which is considered as part of its grammar is adorned speech, adorned by rhythm or by fancy.

  • Adornment of speech by rhythm is covered in study of prosody छन्दःशास्त्रम्, also called as शब्दालङ्कार.
  • Adornment of speech by fancy is covered in अर्थालङ्कार.

As mentioned earlier, every word to be worthy of use in a sentence needs to be formatted. In formatting there is morphology through different steps called as प्रक्रिया. There have been studies focusing only on the morphological aspects of formatting of words and are available in books such as प्रक्रियासर्वस्वम्.

Actually etymological studies व्युत्पत्तिविचार may be considered as the converse of morphological studies. But etymological studies can go deeper than just the converse of morphological studies. I came across a book व्युत्पत्तिवाद published by राष्ट्रिय संस्कृत संस्थानम् http://www.sanskrit.nic.in/DigitalBook/V/Vyutpattivada_2016.pdf

One more aspect of study of words is study of synonyms and antonyms. Sanskrit has a great old tradition of such study. Two such studies which are monumental, are निघण्टु-निरुक्त by यास्काचार्य and अमरकोश (actual name नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्) by अमरसिंह.

I hope this compilation becomes useful to anyone wanting to undertake comprehensive study of grammar of Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु !



वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः – Introduction

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षितविरचिताः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः

I have a book as above, published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे.

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित is more well-known for his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the सूत्र-s of पाणिनि are arranged according to topics in grammar. Possibly सिद्धान्तकौमुदी set up a style of studying Sanskrit grammar by topics and by that it became the first प्रकरणग्रन्थः

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित seems to have a particular liking for the word सिद्धान्त. This composition वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः also includes the word सिद्धान्त. Interestingly, whereas सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is mostly prose वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः is all poetry. Calibre of such people asश्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित composing a scholarly first प्रकरणग्रन्थः on Sanskrit grammar and also composing well-metered poetry, that too on Sanskrit grammar leaves one amazed.

For an overview of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः it would be good to glance through the topics, which can be noted from the first page and also on the contents page.

From the first page

  1. टीकाकारोपोद्घातः –  5 श्लोकाः by कौण्डभट्टवर्यः
  2. प्रतिज्ञाश्लोकः by भट्टोजीदीक्षितवर्यः

From the contents Page –

  1. धात्वर्थाख्यातसामान्यार्थनिर्णयः 20 श्लोकाः (2-21)
  2. लकारविशेषार्थनिरूपणम् 2 श्लोकौ (22, 23)
  3. सुबर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (24)
  4. नामार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (25-27)
  5. समासशक्तिनिर्णयः 8 श्लोकाः (28-35)
  6. शक्तिनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (36, 37, 38)
  7. नञर्थनिर्णयः 2 श्लोकौ (39, 40)
  8. निपातद्योतकत्वनिर्णयः 7 श्लोकाः (41-47)
  9. भावप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (48-50)
  10. देवताप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (51-53)
  11. अभेदैकत्वसंख्यायां वृत्तौ माननिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (54)
  12. उद्देश्यविधेययोः संख्याविवक्षानिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (55-57)
  13. क्त्वाद्यर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (58)
  14. स्फोटवादः 3 श्लोकाः (59-61)
  15. पदादिस्फोटनिरूपणम् 11 श्लोकाः (62-72)

The book published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे contains not just the 72 श्लोकाः but also a commentary in Sanskrit by कौण्डभट्ट. The commentary is named as वैयाकरणभूषणसार by कौण्डभट्ट the commentator. The commentary is prose.

Since both the वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः and the वैयाकरणभूषणसार-commentary are in Sanskrit, for myself to understand what is there in the book, I need to translate. I may as well share it on my blog on संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् so that comments from learned readers will improve the understanding.

One can make some guess about what is there in the book by looking at the contents. As many as 12 out of 17 sections have in their title, the word निर्णयः. One can deduce that all those topics offer instances, where logical decision will have to be arrived at. Eight of the 12 topics also contain the word अर्थ. One can hence deduce that these topics offer instances where selection of an appropriate interpretation would be needed. Almost at all places the words अर्थ and निर्णयः are in that order. So, the कारिकाः may be offering definitive guidance on अर्थनिर्णयः i.e. appropriate interpretation. That sounds appealing and interesting for a detailed study.

By the way, meaning of the word कारिका is given in Apte’s dictionary as “.. A memorial verse, or a collection of such verses, on grammatical, philosophical, or scientific subjects, e. g. Bhattojī Dīkṣita’s Kārikās on grammar; called वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका; सांख्यकारिका…”. Since कारिका means memorial verse(s), श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित certainly deemed them to be worthy of memorizing. That is why they are verses.

There are people who have memorized all the 3994 पाणिनिसूत्र-s of his अष्टाध्यायी. Some educationists demean such education by memorization as rote-learning. But one must acknowledge that it is memorization which helped to make available so much of Sanskrit literature even though the libraries of Nalanda and Taxila were burnt. The libraries are said to have been so huge, that the embers are said to have kept burning for so long as 26 days !

I can approach the task

  • By translation verse by verse, of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका and its commentary वैयाकरणभूषणसार or
  • scripting वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका at least topic by topic, if not scripting all the 72 verses in one go.

शुभमस्तु !



क्त-क्तवतु-प्रत्ययाभ्यां कृदन्ताः|

क्त-क्तवतु-प्रत्ययाभ्यां कृदन्ताः |

(सन्दर्भग्रन्थः – “कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषण”-इति लेखकः डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र-वर्यः, चौखंबा विद्याभवनेन वाराणस्यां प्रकाशितः । अत्र विवेचनं तु हिन्दीभाषायाम् ।)

Verbal Derivatives with क्त/क्तवतु-suffixes

(1) These two are most common derivatives of verbal roots धातु-s in संस्कृत.

(2) In Apte’s dictionary the derivatives

  • with क्त-प्रत्यय are denoted by the abbreviation p. p. (Past Passive Participle)
  • those with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय are denoted by the abbreviation pres. p. (Present participle)
  • The derivatives with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय are just extensions of those with क्त-प्रत्यय, with an additional वत् added to them. For example from धातु कृ, with क्त-प्रत्यय it is कृत, with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय it becomes कृतवत्
  • Hence both derivatives can be substantially studied together.   
  • It should be noted that those with क्त-प्रत्यय have Past tense and passive voice inherent.
  • But those with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय have present tense and active voice inherent. The connotation in Apte’s dictionary as क्तवतु-प्रत्यय = pres. p. (Present participle) is not convincing. It seems more appropriate to consider that past tense is common to both derivatives with क्त-प्रत्यय and with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय. There is only change of voice.
  • One can say that passive voice inherent in derivatives with क्त-प्रत्यय can be transformed into active voice by using derivatives with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय. For example,
    • The sculpture was seen by me (Passive voice) – मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् |
    • I saw the sculpture (Active voice) – अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् |
      • Although अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् is mentioned for the meaning “I saw the sculpture” (Past Simple) the Sanskrit sentence can as well connote “I have seen the sculpture” अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् (अस्मि) (Present perfect) or “I had seen the sculpture” अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् (आसम्) (Past perfect). The verbs in brackets (अस्मि) or (आसम्) may not be actually uttered, but can be understood by context. Hence the verbal derivative दृष्टवान् can be taken to be serving the function of the verb.
      • Same logic applies to मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् = “The sculpture has been seen by me” मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् (अस्ति) (Present perfect) or “The sculpture had been seen by me” मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् (आसीत्) (Past perfect).

(3) In Sanskrit, these derivatives are not just participles, but they are adjectival. Hence they have forms in all three genders, all eight cases and all three numbers.

(4) What is interesting in studying these Verbal Derivatives with क्त/क्तवतु-suffixes is their formation processes प्रक्रिया-s. I do not intend to detail the प्रक्रिया-s in their entirety. But I would like to get a classification-view.

(5) First of all, the suffix क्त (क् + त) affixes as त, since the क्-part gets dropped as a part of the प्रक्रिया, Or we can say that what suffix affixes as त, has been given a grammatical name as क्त, to distinguish it from other suffixes.

(6) Also suffix क्तवतु affixes as वत्

(7) It should be good to focus primarily on suffix क्त.

(8) The formation processes प्रक्रिया-s yield following types of क्त-कृदन्त-s.

  1. Simple affix of त e.g. भा → भात, मा → मात, या → यात, रा → रात, वा → वात, ज्ञा → ज्ञात, इ →इत,, जि → जित, ई → ईत, नी → नीत, कृ → कृत, मृ → मृत  
  2. By some modification of vowel in the धातु, e.g. गै → गीत, दा → दत्त, ध्यै → ध्यात, पा → पीत,
  3. By dropping of the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. गम् → गत, नम् → नत, यम् → यत, रम् → रत
  4. By substitution of the consonant in the धातु, e.g. अद् → अत्त, धा → हित,
  5. By suffix त becoming ट, e.g. इष् → इष्ट, मिष् → मिष्ट, विष् → विष्ट, शिष् → शिष्ट, पुष् → पुष्ट,
  6. By suffix त becoming ट and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. नश् → नष्ट, दृश् → दृष्ट, स्पृश् → स्पृष्ट, पिश् → पिष्ट, पृच्छ् → पृष्ट
  7. By suffix त becoming न or ण, e.g. ली → लीन, पूर् → पूर्ण (also see पॄ),
  8. By suffix त becoming न or ण and also change in the vowel of the धातु, e.g. क्षि → क्षीण, हा → हीन, जॄ –> जीर्ण, तॄ → तीर्ण, पॄ → पूर्ण, स्तॄ → स्तीर्ण,  
  9. By suffix त becoming न or ण and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. अद् → अन्न, खिद् → खिन्न, छिद् → छिन्न, भिद् → भिन्न
  10. By suffix त becoming द and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. शप् → शब्द
  11. By suffix त becoming ध and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. दह् → दग्ध, दिह् → दिग्ध, दुह् → दुग्ध, मुह् → मुग्ध (also मुह् → मूढ) क्षुभ् → क्षुब्ध, स्तम्भ् → स्तब्ध,
  12. By influx of इ or ई e.g. खाद् → खादित, शाप् → शापित, गृह् → गृहीत, जॄ –> जारित, दम्भ् → दंभित, मिश्र् → मिश्रित, वाञ्छ् → वाञ्छित, 
  13. By influx of इ or ई (called as इडागमः) and substantial change in the धातु, e.g. ऋ → अर्पित
  14. Causative णिजन्त, desiderative सन्नन्त, repetitive यङन्त forms of धातु-s often get इडागमः e. g. पठ् → पाठय् → पाठित, स्था → स्थापय् → स्थापित, स्तम्भ् → स्तम्भय् → स्तंभित, पा → पिपास् → पिपासित,

(9) In his book डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र has devoted as many as 116 paras when discussing क्त-कृदन्त-s. I hope, the above detailing covers most of the major varieties of क्त-कृदन्त-s. All the क्त-कृदन्त-s can be proved by their derivation. डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र has done that in his book. My simple objective has been to just compile the major varieties. I shall be obliged, if विद्वांसः would add any varieties, missed by me.

(10) As can be seen some धातु-s would have more than one optional forms, e.g. मुह् → मुग्ध (also मुह् → मूढ). The optional forms connote some different shade of meaning. For example मुग्ध means perplexed, मूढ means befooled.

(11) Also some different धातु-s would have same form, e.g. पॄ → पूर्ण, also पूर् → पूर्ण. This becomes so, especially when the meanings of the different धातु-s are identical.

शुभमस्तु !