Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Parts 8 and 9
व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः – अष्टमनवम-(८, ९)-परिच्छेदौ
- Verbs = क्रियापदानि
- (8-1) Verbs as used in sentences are actually verb-forms क्रियापदरूपाणि obtained by conjugation of verbal roots.
- (8-2) In English, verbal roots are connoted by their infinitives, e.g. to go, to walk, to eat, etc.
- (8-3) In Sanskrit verbal roots are called as धातु-s. As mentioned at (6-2-2), क्रियापदानि are क्रियापदरूपाणि obtained by affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s.
- (8-4) In English verbs in a sentence are verbal forms in different tenses and moods.
- (8-4-1) In English there are four subtypes of all three tenses such as Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present perfect and Present Perfect Continuous.
- (8-4-2) In Sanskrit Present Tense is of only one type, called as वर्तमानकालः or लट्-लकारः
- (8-4-2-1) English sentences of other subtypes of Present tense (and also of subtypes of other tenses) can be appropriately translated into Sanskrit by use of verbal derivatives i.e. कृदन्त-s or धातुसाधितानि e.g. ‘He is going’ = सः गच्छन् अस्ति He has gone = सः गतवान्
- (8-4-2-2) The Perfect Continuous subtype has a sense of repetitiveness of the action. In Sanskrit repetitiveness of action is treated as a specific process and the verbal root itself is modified by यङ्-प्रक्रिया.
- (8-4-2-3) There are some 12 प्रक्रिया-s whereby the verbal root itself is modified and one gets प्रकृतधातु-s. Some commonly used प्रक्रिया-s are –
- (8-4-2-3-1) Causative प्रयोजक-प्रक्रिया / णिच्-प्रक्रिया
- (8-4-2-3-2) Change of voice भावकर्मणि-प्रक्रिया
- (8-4-2-3-3) Desiderative सन्-प्रक्रिया
- (8-4-3) In Sanskrit Past Tense भूतकालः is of three types,
- (8-4-3-1) अनद्यतनभूतकालः (= not as of today) or लङ्-लकारः
- (8-4-3-2) परोक्षभूतकालः (= time not seen by the narrator) or लिट्-लकारः
- (8-4-3-3) प्रथमभूतकालः (= general) or लुङ्-लकारः
- (8-4-4) In Sanskrit Future Tense भविष्यत्कालः is also of three types
- (8-4-4-1) द्वितीयभविष्यः or लृट्-लकारः
- (8-4-4-2) सम्भावनार्थे or लृङ्-लकारः
- (8-4-4-3) अनद्यतनभविष्यः or लुट्-लकारः
- (8-5) In English only Imperative mood does not require verbal auxiliary. But it is valid with subjects only of second person
- (8-5-1) In Sanskrit not only that Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ or लोट्-लकारः does not require verbal auxiliary, there are तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to be affixed to धातु-s to get nine क्रियापदानि or क्रियापदरूपाणि with subject-words of all three persons पुरुष-s and all three numbers वचन-s.
- (8-5-2) In sanskrit क्रियापदानि or क्रियापदरूपाणि in आज्ञार्थ or लोट्-लकारः can be obtained also for modified verbal roots i.e. for प्रकृतधातु-s.
- (8-6) In English constructing sentences in other moods requires use of verbal auxiliaries.
- (8-6-1) Potential mood e.g. ‘He may go’ or ‘He might go’
- (8-6-2) Advocative mood e.g. ‘He should go’
- (8-6-3) Assertive mood e.g. ‘He would go’
- (8-6-4) Compulsive mood e.g. ‘He must go’
- (8-6-5) Capability mood e.g. ‘He can go’
- (8-6-6) Suggestive mood e.g. ‘He could go’
- (8-7) In Sanskrit तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s would be affixed to धातु-s and to प्रकृतधातु-s to get nine क्रियापदानि or क्रियापदरूपाणि each,
- (8-7-1) in Potential mood विध्यर्थ or विधिलिङ्-लकारः
- (8-7-2) in Benedictine mood आशीर्वादार्थः or आशीर्लिङ्-लकारः
- (8-8) in Sanskrit, one would use कृदन्त-s
- (8-8-1) For Advocative mood, with अनीयर्-प्रत्यय e.g. ‘One should meditate on the feet of the Lord of Glory’ श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम्.
- (8-8-2) For Compulsive mood, in Sanskrit, one would use कृदन्त-s with तव्यत्-प्रत्यय e.g. ‘One must do service of one’s parents’ पित्रोः सेवा कर्तव्या
- (8-8-3) For Capability and Suggestive moods, in Sanskrit, one would use क्रियापदरूपाणि of or an adjective like समर्थ्, alongwith the infinitive कृदन्त-s with तुमुन्-प्रत्यय e.g. ‘He can go’ = सः गन्तुं शक्नोति or सः गन्तुं समर्थः
- (8-9) For transforming Affirmative sentences to Interrogative प्रश्नार्थकम्,
- (8-9-1) in English one needs to
- use an auxiliary verb सहाय्यकधातुः ‘to do’.
- Also the words have to be in a specific order, called as ‘syntax’.
- There needs to be the sign of interrogation or the question-mark ‘?’
- (8-9-2) In Sanskrit, to transform an Affirmative sentence to Interrogative.
- (8-9-2-1) just a change in intonation would do
- (8-9-2-2) one may use an indeclinable अपि which needs to be at the beginning of the sentence
- (8-9-2-3) one would use शब्दरूपाणि of interrogative pronoun किम् The shlokas at the beginning of eighth chapter in gItA become eminent example – किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम
- (8-9-2-4) Sanskrit seems to presume that ‘He who understands, understands’ यो वेत्ति स वेत्ति. So
- in Sanskrit, there is total freedom from syntax, but for some exceptions such as use of अपि as mentioned above
- also, using signs of punctuation is not at all compulsory in Sanskrit. In fact one would appreciate that it would be unaesthetic to litter verses with signs of punctuation. Much of Sanskrit literature is in verses.
- (8-9-1) in English one needs to
(9) Adverbs क्रियाविशेषणानि
- (9-1) Whereas an adverb is an important Part of Speech in English, in Sanskrit there is no exact equivalent term. The word क्रियाविशेषणम् is more of a translation of ‘adverb’ but it is not a word mentioned in Sanskrit grammar.
***Contents will be updated as the thought proceeds.
— End of Part 9 —