सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27

On Tuesday Dec. 19, 2017 Dr. Malhar Kulkarni discussed this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27.

This is a संज्ञासूत्रम् related to सर्वनामानि Pronouns. सर्वनाम is the संज्ञा.

There are pronouns in every language. Since it is a grammatical terminology, there would be a definition, which would explain, what a pronoun is. One definition, I get is, “… a pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase, which once replaced, is known as the pronoun’s antecedent.” I am not convinced that every pronoun has an antecedent. Pronouns of first and second person would not have to have antecedents. Only pronouns of third person would have antecedents.

What is the definition of सर्वनामानि in Sanskrit grammar ?

The word सर्वनामानि is a compound word. Deciphering this compound word would explain the concept behind सर्वनामानि and would in turn be its definition. One pattern of deciphering would be सर्वेभ्यः नामानि इति सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः) Hence सर्वनामानि are such nouns,

  • which can be applicable to all सर्वेभ्यः
  • also, which can be usable by all i.e. सर्वैः प्रयोक्तव्यानि This aspect is mentioned in त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72)

So, whereas this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27 introduces the संज्ञा सर्वनाम, more of its ramifications have to be understood from other सूत्र-s, such as शि सर्वनामस्थानम् (1’1’42) त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).

This pattern of discussion of this सूत्रम् brings newer thoughts and newer dimensions to “How to study अष्टाध्यायीसूत्राणि ?”. Earlier on 3rd January 2016, I had attended a session by Dr. Nilesh Joshi. And I had compiled a note on a sequential procedure to study सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.

(1) सूत्रम् → (2) पदच्छेदाः → (3) पदानां विभक्तिवचनविश्लेषणम् → (4) सूत्रवृत्तिः → (5) सूत्रार्थः → (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः |

In respect of Step (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः I had noted that commentaries on सूत्र-s can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/ashtadhyayi/vyakhya/1/1.1.1.htm

This link is a useful tool to read commentaries on any सूत्रम्. One needs to only edit the सूत्र-number in the file address.

But, for one’s own study of any सूत्र, one can and should make one’s own notes, observations and questions.

I had some review of this Methodology, occasioned by a query in April, 2016 by Mr. Kristan Stratos at samskrita@googlegroups.com. That was a good opportunity for me to review/summarize the methodology for Study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी. I detailed it as follows –

For understanding any सूत्रम्, one should follow a sequence –

  1. Write down the सूत्रम् as given → सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
  2. Do पदच्छेद – सर्व-दीनि सर्व-नामानि
  3. Decipher compound words –  
    1. सर्व आदौ येषांस्तानि सर्वादीनि (बहुव्रीहिः)
    2. सर्वेभ्यः नामानि सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)
  4. Do विभक्ति-वचन case-number analysis of all पद-s – सर्वादीनि (1’3) सर्वनामानि (1’3)
  5. Bring forth any such word(s) or phrase(s) from previous सूत्र (or सूत्र-s), which would be essential for proper interpretation of the given सूत्र. This step called as अनुवृत्ति may be or may not be required or applicable. For this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि no अनुवृत्ति seems necessary.
  6. Paraphrase the सूत्रम् i.e. put it in a proper syntax i.e. write the अन्वय so that the paraphrasing brings forth the meaning. Such paraphrasing is called as वृत्ति. One may do this not necessarily in संस्कृत. Concept of वृत्ति is to bring forth the interpretation. So it can be done in any language.

 Since this सूत्रम् has just two words, both in subject case, paraphrasing of the सूत्रम् is simple – just add the verb and complete the sentence → सर्वादीनि (All those starting with सर्व) are सर्वनामानि (are such type of nouns, which can be used by all, are, what are called as Pronouns in English.)

  1. To reinforce the interpretation, one may compile examples. Actually, for this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि, one needs not compile the examples afresh. All सर्वनामानि are already compiled in one place in गणपाठ, which is sort of an Annexure of अष्टाध्यायी. Actually if any सूत्रम् has the word आदि in it, this word आदि is a code-word in अष्टाध्यायी, suggesting that there are many more. All those “many more” are then detailed in गणपाठ. All सर्वनामानि are in सर्वादि-गण in गणपाठ. Note, गण means a collection. सर्वादि-गण means collection of all those, starting with सर्व, i.e. collection of all सर्वनामानि.
  2. Interestingly, in सर्वादि-गण there are as many as 35 सर्वनामानि listed in five sub-groups. Does any other language have so many pronouns ?
    1. सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, डतर, डतम, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, त्वत्, त्व, नेम, सम, सिम (sub-group of 14)
    2. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् This subgroup is a सूत्रम् by itself. A सूत्रम्, which is an integral part of a गण in गणपाठ is called as गणसूत्रम्.
      1. Listed here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर (sub-group of 7)
      2. But it is specified here that these words would be pronouns only when व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम्.
    3. स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun स्व. But it is specified here that स्व would be a pronoun only when it is ज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम्
    4. अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun अन्तर. But it is specified here that अन्तर would be a pronoun only when it is बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः
    5. त्यद्-तद्-यद्-एतद्-इदम्-अदस्-एक-द्वि-युष्मद्-अस्मद्-भवत्-किम् (sub-group of 12). Actually this subgroup details the त्यद्-गण suggested by the सूत्रम् – त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).
  3. The गणसूत्र-s of subgroups #2, 3 and 4 cannot be studied in the same methodology as of studying a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी, because in गणपाठ we do not have any associated सूत्र(s), required for a comprehensive study. But these 3 सूत्र-s are quoted not only in गणपाठ in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, they are also in अष्टाध्यायी by their specific numbers
    1. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् 1’1’34
    2. स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् 1’1’35
    3. अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः 1’1’36

The सूत्रम् what we are studying is सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27. So there are 9 more सूत्र-s in-between. So, all 10 सूत्र-s from 1’1’27 to 1’1’36 ought to be interrelated. Let me list them all.

1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (सि.कौ. 213)

1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 292)

1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 222)

1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सि.कौ. 223)

1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सि.कौ. 224)

1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सि.कौ. 225)

1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सि.कौ. 226)

1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सि.कौ. 218)

1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सि.कौ. 219)

1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सि.कौ. 220)

In the above listing, what are given in parentheses are serial numbers of paras in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, in which the different सूत्र-s are discussed. All the Paras # 213 to 226 are in अजन्तपुँल्लिङ्गप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. Para # 292 is in अजन्तस्त्रीलिङ्गप्रकरणम्. Also the serial order of the para numbers in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is different from their numbers in अष्टाध्यायी.

In महाभाष्यम् all these सूत्र-s are discussed in the sixth आह्निकम् and in the sequence as per अष्टाध्यायी.

Common theme or topic of all these 10 सूत्र-s is सर्वनामानि. Having started the study of only one सूत्र, it now transpires that we have to study 10 सूत्र-s. But study of the one सूत्र, with which we started, will become an incomplete study, if we do not study all the ten. This – to study related सूत्र-s together – seems to be one good modification in the method of studying अष्टाध्यायी.

Actually for the study to be as much complete a study as possible, it comes to mind that one should study all other सूत्र-s, which deal with some aspect or the other of all the सर्वनामानि.

On this count Dr. Malhar Kulkarni did discuss that there are three important aspects about सर्वनामानि, which merit a study. These are

  • Word-forms of सर्वनामानि are different in case of चतुर्थी-पञ्चमी-सप्तमी-एकवचनम् and प्रथमा-षष्ठी बहुवचनम्
  • पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् (5’3’7) and सप्तम्यास्त्रल् (5’3’10)
  • अव्ययसर्वनाम्नामकच् प्राक् टेः (5’3’71)

The pronouns युष्मद् and अस्मद् are unique that their word-forms are common in all genders. To be able to locate, compile and study the सूत्र-s related to everyone of the 35-odd pronouns, a Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी would be very good. I posted a query inquiring whether any such Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी has already been compiled. Dr. H. N. Bhat very kindly gave a link to पाणिनीयसूत्रपाठस्य तत्परिशिष्टग्रन्थानां च शब्दकोशाः compiled by पाठक-चित्राव-शास्त्रिणौ way back in 1935. It is mentioned in the preface that they labored on it over 12 years !

There is so much to study ! Let us proceed.

In 1’1’28 and 1’1’32 there is the word विभाषा. In अष्टाध्यायी this word is used in a specific sense, as mentioned in न वेति विभाषा (1’1’44), i.e. “maybe or may not be”. This should help in interpreting these two सूत्र-s.

First of all, we should put in appropriate अनुवृत्ति-s in all these सूत्र-s. This way, we can make some cursory study of all the 10 सूत्र-s.

  1. 1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
  2. 1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = if (i) a pronoun-word is in a compound word and (ii) the compound word is speaking of a direction and (iii) if the compounding is of बहुव्रीहि-type, then the pronoun word may or may not merit treatment as a pronoun
  3. 1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = If any of the सर्वनामानि is part of a compound word, (excepting one speaking of a direction) such compound word would not be a सर्वनाम. A बहुव्रीहि-compound word is eminently adjectival. For example
  4. 1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि ) =
  5. 1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सर्वनामानि )
  6. 1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सर्वनामानि)
  7. 1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are प्रथम, चरम, तय, ल्प, र्ध, कतिपय, नेम. It seems that सर्वादिगण has missed out प्रथम, चरम, तय, ल्प, र्ध, कतिपय.
  8. 1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are पूर्व, पर, वर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, पर, धर. But these would be pronouns only when they have the context of व्यवस्था and are not nouns.
  9. 1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सर्वनाम) = स्व would be a pronoun only if it has no context of ज्ञाति, धन, आख्या.
  10. 1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सर्वनाम) = अन्तर would be a pronoun only if it has a context of बहिर्योग and उपसंव्यान.

Since there are pronouns in every language, it should be interesting to make a comparative study of pronouns in English and in Sanskrit.

In English pronouns are of 10 types –

  1. Personal Pronouns ⇒ Are subjective (he, she, it, I, we, you, they) and objective (him, her, it, me, us, you, them). Note, objective pronouns are only the द्वितीया (/चतुर्थी) विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
  2. Interrogative Pronouns ⇒ (who, what, which, whom whose) In Sanskrit these are forms of किम्.
  3. Indefinite Pronouns ⇒ (all, anyone, both, each, anything, everybody, many, no one, some, someone, few, etc)
    1. It seems that at least the word बहु from बहुगणवतुडति सङ्ख्या in सूत्रम् 1’1’22 actually qualify to be an indefinite pronoun.
    2. Also suffixes चित् and चन make the indefinite pronouns when affixed to forms of किम् e.g. कश्चित्, किञ्चित्, काचित्, कश्चन, किञ्चन, काचन.
  4. Relative Pronouns ⇒ E.g. “Is this, what I get ?” Here, “this” and “what” are related, “what” being in the subordinate clause. More impressive example is यः पश्यति स पश्यति (गीता 13’27) He, who sees, sees OR One, who sees, sees.
  5. Possessive Pronouns ⇒(His, hers, its, mine, ours, yours, theirs) In Sanskrit these are by षष्ठी विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
  6. Reflexive Pronouns ⇒ (Himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves). In Sanskrit the function of the suffix “self” is served by adjectival usage of स्व, e.g. I saw it myself मया स्वेन दृष्टम् or one uses स्वयम् adverbially e.g. स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् (गीता 10’15) i.e. त्वम् आत्मानम् आत्मना स्वयमेव वेत्थ You त्वम् know वेत्थ thyself आत्मानम् by thyself आत्मना automatically (by virtue of your intrinsic faculty) स्वयमेव.  
  7. Intensive Pronouns ⇒ e.g. “You yourself must come.” Note, “you” is a personal pronoun, “yourself” is a reflexive pronoun. Both together becomes intensive pronoun. Above example of स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् is a classic example of very forceful combination of reflexivity and intensity.
  8. Demonstrative Pronouns ⇒ (this, that, these, those, none, neither, such)
  9. Reciprocal Pronouns ⇒ (Each other, each other’s, one another, one another’s)
  10. Distributive Pronouns ⇒ (Each, either, neither)

For this study of pronouns to be comprehensive and complete, one needs to be find which pronoun is detailed in which other सूत्र-s and note the significance of every such detail.

It comes to mind that study up to here may be taken as Part 1 of the study of this subject of सर्वनामानि Pronouns in Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु !




(1) As is obvious, सुबन्ताः is a compound word (सुप् अन्ते यस्य सः सुबन्तः → ते) सुबन्ताः are words which have सुप् at their ending.

(2) सुप् means any one of the suffixes प्रत्यय-s contained in the सूत्रम् –

स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् (पा. ४-१-२)

(3) This सूत्रम् is again a compound word, containing संधि of many पद-s, (सु च, औ च, जस् च), (अम् च, औट् च, शस् च), (टा च, भ्यां च, भिस् च), (ङे च, भ्यां च, भ्यस् च), (ङसि च, भ्यां च, भ्यस् च), (ङस् च, ओस् च, आं च), (ङि च, ओस् च, सुप् च) |

  • By using the brackets, I have grouped the suffixes in 7 groups of 3 in each group.

(4) सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are affixed to प्रातिपदिक-s, which are defined as – अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् (१-२-४५), अर्थवत्-अधातुः-अप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, meaning

  • what is अर्थवत्, what is meaningful
  • अधातुः, what is not a धातु
  • अप्रत्ययः, which does not contain a suffix
  • Is called as प्रातिपदिकम्

(5) Root words of all नामानि nouns, सर्वनामानि pronouns and विशेषणानि adjectives are प्रातिपदिकानि, because, they are meaningful, they are NOT धातु-s, being root words, they do not contain any प्रत्यय-s.

(9) By common parlance, what one gets by affixing सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिकानि are called as शब्दरूपाणि. However, in Sanskrit grammar they are all पद-s, as defined in the सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (पा. १-४-१४).

(10) The seven groups of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are related to seven cases विभक्ति-s. Each group has three सुप्-प्रत्यय-s, which are to be affixed according to the number वचनम्, which is detailed in the सूत्रम् – तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः (पा. १-४-१०१). तानि एकवचन-द्विवचन-बहुवचनानि एकशः ।

(11) Uses of the seven different cases are also explained in various सूत्र-s. In लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराज there is a good chapter विभक्त्यर्थाः wherein one finds the following सूत्र-s.

  1. Uses of प्रथमा – प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा (२-३-४६)
    1. संबोधने च (२-३-४७)
  2. Uses of कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म (१-४-४९) also कर्मणि द्वितीया (२-३-२) and अकथितं च (१-४-५१)
  3. Uses of तृतीया – स्वतंत्रः कर्ता (१-४-५४); साधकतमं करणम् (१-४-४२); कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया (२-३-१८)
  4. Uses of चतुर्थी – कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्प्रदानम् (१-४-३२); चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने (२-३-१३); नमस्स्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाश्च (२-३-१६)
  5. Uses of पञ्चमी – ध्रुवमपादायेऽपादानम् (१-४-२४); अपादाने पञ्चमी (२-३-२८)
  6. Uses of षष्ठी – षष्ठी शेषे (२-३-५०)
  7. Uses of सप्तमी – आधारोऽधिकरणम् (१-४-४५); सप्तम्यधिकरणे च (२-३-३६)

(12) Since सुप्-प्रत्यय-s apply to नामानि, सर्वनामानि and विशेषणानि, it will be good to know the rule about how सुबन्त-s of these relate with each other. There is a good verse for the rule.

यल्लिङ्गं यद्वचनं या च विभक्तिर्विशेष्यस्य |

तल्लिङ्गं तद्वचनं सा च विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ||

(13) Having outlined in the above 12 paras, the basics of सुबन्त-s, we can get into the grammatical processes प्रक्रिया-s of obtaining सुबन्तपदानि from different प्रातिपदिकानि. This will have two main aspects –

  • One would derive an अङ्गम् from the प्रातिपदिकम्. Note, अङ्गम् is defined in a सूत्रम् as यस्मात्प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेऽङ्गम् (१-४-१३)
  • One would also note whether the सुप्-प्रत्यय will also undergo any changes, when it gets affixed to the अङ्गम्.

(14) As is detailed in para (3), the सुप्-प्रत्यय of प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् is सु.

  1. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् राम, we have the सुबन्तपदम् रामः
  2. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् वन, we have the सुबन्तपदम् वनम्
  3. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् माला, we have the सुबन्तपदम् माला
  4. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् हरि, we have the सुबन्तपदम् हरिः
  5. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् मति, we have the सुबन्तपदम् मतिः
  6. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् वारि, we have the सुबन्तपदम् वारि
  7. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् नदी, we have the सुबन्तपदम् नदी
  8. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् भानु, we have the सुबन्तपदम् भानुः
  9. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् धेनु, we have the सुबन्तपदम् धेनुः
  10. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् मधु, we have the सुबन्तपदम् मधु
  11. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् भू, we have the सुबन्तपदम् भूः
  12. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् पितृ, we have the सुबन्तपदम् पिता
  13. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् मातृ, we have the सुबन्तपदम् माता
  14. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् कर्तृ (नपुं.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् कर्तृ
  15. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम्  गो, we have the सुबन्तपदम् गौः
  16. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् नौ, we have the सुबन्तपदम् नौः
  17. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् दुह्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् धुक्/धुग्
  18. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् उपानह्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् उपानत्/उपानद्
  19. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् इदम् (पुं.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् अयम्
  20. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् इदम् (स्त्री.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् इयम्
  21. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् इदम् (नपुं.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् इदम्
  22. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् अस्मद्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् अहम्
  23. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् युष्मद्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् त्वम्
  24. When प्रत्ययः जस् affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् चतुर् (पुं.,बहु.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् चत्वारः
  25. When प्रत्ययः जस् affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् चतुर् (स्त्री.बहु.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् चतस्रः
  26. When प्रत्ययः जस् affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् चतुर् (नपुं.बहु.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् चत्वारि

Items 19 to 23 become really thought-provoking, how the same प्रत्ययः सु lends सुबन्त-s, so very different from each other and quite different from their प्रातिपदिकम्.

  • In items 19 to 21, the सुबन्त-s are different from each other, obviously because gender लिङ्गम् is different.
  • In items 22 and 23, the सुबन्त-s are quite different from the प्रातिपदिकम्, though the सुबन्त-s are independent of gender, rather, त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु समानाः |

Whereas I have listed above 26 items, in a pocket-size book रूपचन्दिका by श्री. ब्रह्मानंद त्रिपाठी published by चौखंबा सुरभारती प्रकाशन, वाराणसी, one gets all सुबन्त-s in all विभक्ति-s and वचन-s for as many as 182 typical प्रातिपदिकानि. Under the tabulations of सुबन्त-s, author lists many other प्रातिपदिकानि, which follow the pattern of each typical प्रातिपदिकम्. Of course, no such list can ever be comprehensive and complete.

Now, in the context of the mention of “.. all सुबन्त-s in all विभक्ति-s and वचन-s ..”, it ought to be noted that

  • There are no संबोधन-सुबन्तानि for सर्वनामानि.
  • There are some प्रातिपदिकानि, which are inherently plural by nature and have only बहुवचन-सुबन्तानि, as exemplified by items 24, 25 and 26.

Looking at all सुबन्तानि of any one प्रातिपदिकम् also, one wonders whether the अङ्गानि also are different, when different सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are to be affixed. There again, if the प्रातिपदिकम् is a pronoun or an adjective, the gender also influences, as shown at items 19 to 21.

And there are some exceptional प्रातिपदिकानि, e.g. पथिन् (meaning मार्गः, path), for which, in its अङ्गानि, its ending न् moves before थ् and becomes पन्थ्

Is this sounding too complex ? Point to be borne in mind is that no grammarian created the language. The प्रातिपदिकानि and their सुबन्तानि were in use, as were compiled by the grammarians. Hats off to the grammarians, that they were able to find their way through the maze and find patterns and derive rules, which explain how all सुबन्तानि of all प्रातिपदिकानि can be certified valid or not valid (if someone commits an error and forms an erroneous सुबन्तम्).

  • We need to respect the hard labor put in by the grammarians and should in turn respect that their labor has structured संस्कृत with zero tolerance, not only for erroneous सुबन्तानि, but for any erroneous पदानि. But errors would happen, especially in Spoken Sanskrit. It is on this point that I am against promotion of Spoken Sanskrit, unless and until one is sure that any Spoken Sanskrit also will be totally free of errors. It is my firm belief, that erroneous Sanskrit is not Sanskrit at all. Then why promote any such Sanskrit, which may not be Sanskrit at all ?

The rules are so set that even if some new प्रातिपदिकम् be formed, its सुबन्तानि can be derived. For example, tube-light is an item of the modern world. There can be a Sanskrit word for it – तेजोदण्डः or तेजोनलिका. Then one can have all सुबन्तानि for these. Even if Sanskrit has zero tolerance for errors, the grammarians have kept it flexible enough to provide formation of new words and their correct सुबन्तानि !

शुभमस्तु !