संज्ञक-s or इत्-s of पाणिनि

संज्ञक-s of पाणिनि

First of all let us understand meaning of संज्ञक-s. In simple terms संज्ञां करोति इति संज्ञकम् = संज्ञकम् is, what makes or coins a name संज्ञा for something. For example we have the धातुः गम्. But instead of speaking of धातुः गम् every time by these two words धातुः गम्, पाणिनि coins a name for it. He names it as गम्लृँ In coining the name in this manner, he has affixed लृँ as the संज्ञकम्. Now धातुः गम् gets a name as गम्लृँ. Of course there is great intelligence in selecting लृँ as the संज्ञकम् and coining the name गम्लृँ for धातुः गम्.

When parents name their children, they do have some loving thoughts, what the name should signify. पाणिनि also loves every grammatical element so much, that he uses meaningful संज्ञक-s to coin the names.

Another passion of पाणिनि is brevity. Just as he would hate to keep calling धातुः गम् every time by these two words धातुः गम् he hates to call संज्ञक-s as संज्ञक-s. He has assigned a shorter name even for संज्ञक-s. He calls each संज्ञक as इत्. Since इत् is a grammatical noun, its plural becomes इतः. But for the comfort of English-reading people, I shall use plural of इत् as इत्-s.

Of course इत्-s have the specific purpose of coining the names intelligently. They have to be taken off, when you have to do further processing with the grammatical element itself. For example when we want to get from धातुः गम्, its past passive participle गत, then we have to first of all take away लृँ from गम्लृँ. 

Now, to obtain past passive participles from धातु-s, one uses a suffix. To call this suffix as “the suffix to get past participles from धातु-s” is too long a phrase. पाणिनि has coined a name for this suffix also. He calls it as क्त. Now to get गत from गम्लृँ् by affixing the suffix क्त, we need to bear in mind that क्त is only the name of the suffix. The process प्रक्रिया will use only त out of क्त. This is because the name क्त has in it क् as a संज्ञक or इत्.

From this we need to note that पाणिनि coins names by using संज्ञक-s or इत्-s at the beginning or at the end of grammatical elements.

In fact पाणिनि coins name of the most commonplace धातुः कृ as डुकृञ्. Here both डु and ञ् are इत्-s, one at the beginning and one at the end. When getting past passive participle of धातुः कृ, both डु and ञ् the इत्-s in डुकृञ् and also क् the संज्ञक or इत् in क्त all are to be taken off. That is how we get कृत, the past passive participle of धातुः कृ.

Questions of natural curiosity would be –

  1. What all different संज्ञक-s or इत्-s does पाणिनि use to coin names ?
  2. For what all grammatical elements does पाणिनि coin names ?

Single word answer to question (2) is उपदेशे.

Answer for question (1) is to be found in 7 aphorisms सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी, from (1-3-2) to (1-3-8). Because these सूत्राणि detail the संज्ञक-s or इत्-s, these are also known as इत्संज्ञकसूत्राणि. However, since there is no need to keep both words इत् and संज्ञक, it should be adequate to call them as इत्-सूत्राणि.

Coming to उपदेशे, the answer to question (2), it ought to be noted that पाणिनि uses the word उपदेश not by its colloquial meaning as ‘advice’.

To understand the meaning as implied by पाणिनि, the meaning has to be derived etymologically. The word उपदेशः has two components – the prefix उप and noun देशः.

  • The prefix उप does mean ‘nearby’, ‘closely associated’.
  • देशः is a masculine abstract noun, derived from धातुः दिश् and means “an area, a portion, a subject, class”.

This way उपदेशः is what denotes or is associated with a specific area or subject, class. Following couplet summarizes what are called as उपदेश-s in Sanskrit grammar.

धातुसूत्रगणोणादिवाक्यलिङ्गानुशासनम् ।

आगमप्रत्ययादेशाः उपदेशाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥

By पदच्छेद-s –

धातु-सूत्र-गण-उणादि-वाक्य-लिङ्गानुशासनम् ।

आगम-प्रत्यय-आदेशाः उपदेशाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥

In सूत्रम् (1-3-2) there is the mention उपदेशे इत्, meaning पाणिनि uses इत्-s for उपदेश-s, i.e. for धातु-s, in सूत्र-s, for गण-s, for उणादि-s, in वाक्य-s, for लिङ्गानुशासनम्, for आगम-s, for प्रत्यय-s and for आदेश-s.

  1. We have already seen गम्लृँ् and डुकृञ् as names of धातु-s, where लृँ्, डु and ञ् are used as इत्-s.
  2. Example of use of इत्-s in सूत्र-s can be seen, right in the very first two सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी
    1. In सूत्र (1-1-1) वृद्धिरादैच् (= वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) the words आत् and ऐच् are both संज्ञा-s. आत् has the संज्ञकम् त् and ऐच् has the संज्ञकम् च्
    2. In सूत्र (1-1-2) अदेङ्गुणः (= अत् एङ् गुणः) the words अत् and एङ् are both संज्ञा-s. अत् has the संज्ञकम् त् and एङ् has the संज्ञकम् ङ्
  3. The 10 गण-s of धातु-s are given names as enlisted in a श्लोक – भ्वाद्यदादी जुहोत्यादिः दिवादिः स्वादिरेव च | तुदादिश्च रुधादिश्च तन्क्र्यादी चुरादिरपि || Note
    1. भ्वादिः is पाणिनि’s name for first गण of धातु-s. The name भ्वादिः (भू-आदिः) means  भू &c.
    2. अदादिः is पाणिनि’s name for second गण of धातु-s. The name अदादिः (अद्-आदिः) means अद् &c.  
    3. जुहोत्यादिः is पाणिनि’s name for third गण of धातु-s. The name जुहोत्यादिः (जुहोति-आदिः) means हु &c.
    4. दिवादिः is पाणिनि’s name for fourth गण of धातु-s. The name दिवादिः (दिव्-आदिः) means दिव् &c.
    5. स्वादिः is पाणिनि’s name for fifth गण of धातु-s. The name स्वादिः (सु-आदिः) means सु &c.
    6. तुदादिः is पाणिनि’s name for sixth गण of धातु-s. The name तुदादिः (तुद्-आदिः) means तुद् &c.  
    7. रुधादिः is पाणिनि’s name for seventh गण of धातु-s. The name रुधादिः (रुध्-आदिः) means रुध् &c.
    8. तनादिः is पाणिनि’s name for eighth गण of धातु-s. The name तनादिः (तन्-आदिः) means तन् &c.
    9. क्र्यादिः is पाणिनि’s name for ninth गण of धातु-s. The name क्र्यादिः (क्री-आदिः) means क्री &c.
    10. चुरादिः is पाणिनि’s name for tenth गण of धातु-s. The name चुरादिः (चुर्-आदिः) means चुर् &c.
    11. Of course in coining these names, no इत्-s are used. It is a food for thought, why पाणिनि does not call the गण-s of धातु-s as प्रथमगणः, द्वितीयगणः, … दशमगणः. One logic can be his passion for brevity. Instead of saying “डुकृञ् is a अष्टमगणीयः धातुः” it certainly becomes quite crisp to say डुकृञ् तनादिः.
  4. उणादि-s are large number of typical suffixes, which have as much large number of names as hinted in उणादयो बहुलम् (3-3-1)
  5. To get examples of how concept of naming is implemented even to name वाक्य-s will need some exploration. There again, one needs to check whether meaning of वाक्य in पाणिनि’s logic is वाक्य = sentence, or something else.
  6. From the masculine word देवः we have two feminine words देवी and देवता which obviously use different suffixes. Such different suffixes will have specific grammatical names coined using इत्-s. Names of those suffixes become examples of use of इत्-s for लिङ्गानुशासनम्,
  7. When we get स्तंभित from धातुः स्तम्भ् there is an import आगम of इ. This incoming इ has the name as इट्, where ट् is the इत् in this name.
  8. We have had the example of क् as a संज्ञक or इत् in the name क्त of the प्रत्यय, which one uses to get past passive participles from धातु-s. So पाणिनि has coined names for all the large number of प्रत्यय-s, which are detailed across सूत्र-s starting from (3-1-1) to (5-4-160), i.e. from beginning of third chapter to end of fifth chapter.
  9. Grammatical meaning of आदेश is different from its colloquial meaning (आदेश = command, order, instruction). In grammar आदेश means “change, modification, alteration, substitution’. One good example of आदेश is in the सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६।१।७७)
    1. इको यणचि (= इकः यण् अचि) means “इकः यण् भवति when followed by अच्.” Here यण् is the name of आदेश, which takes effect, when क् is followed by अच्. For example, in इत्यलम् (इति अलम्)  Note, इति अलम् is इ-त्-इ अ-लम् → (step 2) इ-त्-य् अलम् → इत्यलम् Here, इ in ति is followed by अ, which is an अच्. By यणादेश, in step 2, इ changes to य्.

Now for answer to question (1) “What all different संज्ञक-s or इत्-s does पाणिनि use to coin names ?”, we need to study इत्संज्ञकसूत्राणि. These are –

(1) उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् | (1-3-2)

(2) हलन्त्यम् | (1-3-3)

(3) न विभक्तौ तुस्माः | (1-3-4)

(4) आदिर्ञिटुडवः | (1-3-5)

(5) षः प्रत्ययस्य | (1-3-6)

(6) चुटू | (1-3-7)

(7) ल्श्क्वतद्धिते | (1-3-8)

I would take उपदेशे इत् as a phrase common to all these सूत्र-s. Then answer to our question becomes –

(1) अजनुनासिकः = अच् (यः) अनुनासिकः

  • Note, in गम्लृँ the ending लृँ has two components the ऌ, which is an अच् and the symbol ँ which is a symbol to indicate nasal pronunciations, अनुनासिक-s. So in गम्लृँ the लृँ is अनुनासिक अच्.
  • लृँ is the इत्, which makes गम्लृँ as the name संज्ञा for धातुः गम्
  • Because गम् is a धातुः, it is an उपदेश.

(2) हलन्त्यम् = हल् (यदि) अन्त्यम् = हल् as ending.

(3) न विभक्तौ तुस्माः – Here the word तुस्माः stands for the consonants तु (i.e. consonants of त-वर्ग), स् and म्. These consonants are often ending consonants and hence integral parts of many विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s. Hence they are not to be considered as इत्-s, name-makers of those विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s.

This सूत्रम् does NOT specify where अन्त्यम् हल् is इत्. Rather it specifies which अन्त्य हल्-s are not to be considered as इत्-s.

(4) आदिर्ञिटुडवः | (1-3-5) – By पदच्छेद-s this सूत्रम् is आदिः ञिटुडवः. The word ञिटुडवः refers to ञि, टु (i.e. consonants of ट-वर्ग), डु (as in डुकृञ्)

which would be at the beginning of a संज्ञा. Examples are –

  • धातुः मिद् has the name ञिमिदाँ. Note, here there are two इत्-s, ञि at the beginning and आँ at the end.
  • धातुः मस्ज् has the name टुमस्ज्
  • डु as in डुकृञ् has been already mentioned.

(5) षः प्रत्ययस्य | (1-3-6) – Here षः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of ष् which is used as an इत् in the names of some प्रत्यय-s. For example there is a प्रत्यय by the name ष्यञ्. This प्रत्यय also has two इत्-s, ष् at the beginning आदिः and ञ् which is अन्त्यम् हल्. In actual application, both the इत्-s have to be taken off. Hence the ष्यञ्-प्रत्यय will get applied only as य as in पौन:पुन्यम् is पुन:पुन: + ष्यञ् So the ष्यञ्-प्रत्यय is used to get an abstract noun from another non-verbal word such as पुन:पुन:. Note, whereas पुन:पुन: means repeatedly (an adverb), पौन:पुन्यम् means repetitiveness (abstract noun).

(6) चुटू | (1-3-7) – Here the word चुटू is a compound word with two components चु (i.e. consonants of च-वर्ग) and टु (i.e. consonants of ट-वर्ग). Hence चुटू is द्विवचनम् of चुटु. It will need some exploring to find examples, where चु (i.e. consonants of च-वर्ग) and टु (i.e. consonants of ट-वर्ग) are used to coin names of grammatical elements.

(7) ल्श्क्वतद्धिते | (1-3-8) – By पदच्छेद-s this सूत्रम् is ल्-श्-कु-अतद्धिते. It means names coined for अतद्धित-s may have ल्, श्, कु (i.e. consonants of क-वर्ग) as इत्-s in the आदि-position. For example –

  • There is a प्रत्यय ल्यप्. It affixes to धातु-s with prefix. Because it is NOT non-verbal, it is अतद्धित. Actually its name has two इत्-s,  ल् in the आदि-position and प्, which is अन्त्यम् हल्. In actual application, both the इत्-s have to be taken off. Hence the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय will get applied only as य.
    • Let us take नियमँ + ल्यप्. First of all, नियमँ name of the धातु has अँ at its end. This ending is अनुनासिक अच्. That will have to be taken off. Then we have नियम् to which add य of ल्यप्. So, we shall have नियम् + य = नियम्य.
  • Let us take a प्रत्यय, called as शतृँ. This name of the प्रत्यय also has two इत्-s, श् in the beginning and ऋँ at its end. This ending is अनुनासिक अच्. In actual application, both the इत्-s have to be taken off. Hence the शतृँ-प्रत्यय will get applied only as अत्.
    • If we want to apply to मथेँ, the name of the धातु has अँ at its end. This ending is अनुनासिक अच्. That will have to be taken off. Then we have मथ् to which add अत् of शतृँ. So, we shall have मथ् + अत् = मथत्.
  • We have already seen application of प्रत्यय क्त to गम्लृँ. Of course प्रत्यय क्त has in the beginning क्, which is a कु i.e. a consonant of क-वर्ग

(9) The instances that the प्रत्यय-s ष्यञ् and ल्यप् get applied as य should bring forth the justification for coining different names for them.  

(10) Since all इत्-s are primarily for coining names for various उपदेश-s, they have to be taken off. This is commanded by the सूत्रम् –  तस्य लोपः | (1-3-9). As has been shown, when affixing a suffix to more than one उपदेश-s, e.g. when affixing a प्रत्यय to a धातु, all इत्-s  from both have to be taken off. So, the command तस्य लोपः applies to all इत्-s. By this logic, तस्य लोपः | (1-3-9) is the concluding इत्-विधायकसूत्रम्.

शुभमस्तु !