क्त्वा-प्रत्ययेन कृदन्तानि

In Sanskrit literature, one comes across many words formed by using this क्त्वा-प्रत्यय affixed to various धातु-s. Because this क्त्वा-प्रत्यय affixes to धातु-s, क्त्वा is basically a कृत्-प्रत्यय. Hence words formed by affixing क्त्वा to different धातु-s can be called as their क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s or simply क्त्वान्त-s.

सूत्रम् (1’1’40) क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः [bringing forward अव्ययम् from (1’1’37)] means “The words ending in the affixes क्त्वा, (तोसुन् and कसुन्), are अव्यय-s, indeclinables. (The तोसुँन्-प्रत्यय: and कसुँन्-प्रत्यय: are used only in the वेद-s”).

Most common use of क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s is clear from the meanings भूत्वा (= having been) कृत्वा (= having done) स्थित्वा (= having stood up) गत्वा (= having gone) नत्वा (= having bent OR having bowed) दृष्ट्वा (= having seen). In English grammar, the phrases such as “having seen”, contain the auxiliary “having” and the past passive participle “seen”. The क्त्वा-प्रत्यय serves both the functions, that of the auxiliary “having” and of the past passive participle.

In all such instances the subject is involved in two actions – one previous and another next. क्त्वा applies to the previous of the two actions. Importantly, the subject is common. Of course, this is summarized in सूत्रम् (3’4’21) – समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले meaning, “The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.

Note: द्वित्‍वमतन्‍त्रम् (द्वित्वम् अतन्त्रम्) The use of the dual number in समानकर्तृकयोः is non-consequential. It does not necessarily mean that the affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ applies only when there are exactly two actions. The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ can also be used when there are three or more actions – for example भुक्‍त्‍वा पीत्‍वा व्रजति meaning (he) goes after eating and drinking.

For some more information about क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s, it would be interesting to browse through the सूत्र-s, which have mention of क्त्वा. There are 5 such सूत्र-s obtaining from the अष्टाध्यायी word-index for क्त्वा (linked here).  

  1. सूत्रम् (1’2’22) पूङः क्त्वा च  specifies that for धातुः पूङ् “to purify”, the प्रत्यय क्त्वा affixes as क्त्वा only, i.e. without the drop=off of क्. Hence पू+क्त्वा = पूक्त्वा
  2. सूत्रम् (2’2’22) क्त्वा च  (with अनुवृत्ति-s of उपपद, तृतीयाप्रभृतीनि from previousसूत्र-s) specifies that one can affix क्त्वा to उपपद-words and to words with तृतीया and other cases, and that way compose compound words e.g. उच्चैःकृत्वा (in raised voice). Is it not interesting that, though क्त्वा is primarily a कृत्-प्रत्यय, it can be affixed to सुबन्त-s !
  3. सूत्रम् (3’4’18) अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा  specifies that one can use क्त्वान्त-s with अलम् and खलु for expressing the sense of prohibition. For example, अलं रुदित्वा (= enough with crying). रुदित्वा खलु (?) (= should be crying ? No, do not cry.)
  4. सूत्रम् – अव्ययेऽयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वाणमुलौ (3’4’59) (अव्यये अयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वा-णमुलौ) specifies that क्त्वा of धातुः कृ i.e. कृत्वा can be affixed to अव्यय-s to communicate something what is disagreeable or undesirable. For example नीचैःकृत्वा (speaking in low voice to one who is hard of hearing and likes to be spoken to in raised voice)
  5. सूत्रम् – क्त्वाऽपि छन्दसि (क्त्वा अपि छन्दसि) (7’1’38) specifies that in Vedic literature one finds use of क्त्वान्त-s in a manner, which does not conform to grammar of classical Sanskrit. e.g. In यजमानं परिधापयित्वा the composition of the word परिधापयित्वा should be, परिधाप्य as per grammar of classical Sanskrit (with ल्यप्-प्रत्यय instead of with क्त्वा-प्रत्यय, since there is उपसर्ग परि).
  6. One can form negative compounds also of क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s. For example गुरूनहत्वा (गुरून् अहत्वा) in गीता 2’5. Note अहत्वा means न हत्वा.

Do we have क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s for all धातु-s ? Basically to check whether any प्रत्यय may be affixed to all धातु-s, there are two सूत्र-s to take note of – (1) तिङ्-शित् सार्वधातुकम् (3’4’113) and (2) आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114).

Since क्त्वा is a कृत्-प्रत्यय, it is not a तिङ्-प्रत्यय. Also, its संज्ञा the name क्त्वा does not have any श् at its beginning. So, it is not a शित्. By both these considerations it does not qualify to be सार्वधातुक.

In turn क्त्वा qualifies to be considered an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय as per आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114). So, are there any धातु-s to which क्त्वा would not be affixed ? That would be a point to investigate.

Another aspect of this study should be to know the प्रक्रिया-s, by which क्त्वा affixes to different धातु-s.

Before that, it should be noted that the name क्त्वा has in its name, rather, in the beginning of it, क् as an इत्. This क् is an इत् as per लशक्वतद्धिते (1’3’8) and merits to be dropped off as per तस्य लोपः (1’3’9). So, practically क्त्वा would affix only as त्वा. A name having क् as an इत् would be called as किदन्वित (कित्-अन्वित) or as “a संज्ञा with कित् in it”. There are many such कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, which have कित्-संज्ञा-s, e.g. क्त, क्तवतु, क्तिन्, etc. Presently this study focuses on क्त्वा. Maybe, much of this study will come handy, when studying the others also.

It would be good  to identify some commonly known क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s by their formation styles =>

  1. It has been mentioned above that as per (1’2’22) for धातुः पू(ङ्) “to purify”, the प्रत्यय क्त्वा affixes as क्त्वा only, i.e. without the drop=off of क्. Hence पू+क्त्वा = पूक्त्वा. The सूत्रम् (1’2’22) is exclusively for धातुः पू.
    1. Meaning of धातुः पू as detailed in Apte’s dictionary is <पू 1, 4 Ā., 9 U. (पवते, पूयते, पुनाति, पुनीते, पूत; caus. पावयति; desid. पुपूषति, पिपविषते) 1 To make pure, cleanse, purify (lit. and fig.); अवश्यपाव्यं पवसे Bk.6.64; 3.18; पुण्याश्रमदर्शनेन तावदात्मानं पुनीमहे Ś.1; Ms.1.15;2. 62; Y.1.58; R.1.53; पवनः पवतामस्मि Bg.1.31. -2 To refine. -3 To clean from chaff, winnow; पूत्वा तृण- मिषीकां वा ते लभन्ते न किञ्चन Mb.12.237.4. -4 To expiate, atone for; दुर्मित्रासो हि क्षितयः पवन्ते Rv.7.28.4. -5 To discern, discriminate. -6 To think out, devise, invent. -7 To become clear or pure (Ātm.).>
  2. भू =>भूत्वा, कृ => कृत्वा, which seem to be straightforward with no प्रक्रिया involved, rather, with no change involved. See note below on this formation style #2
  3. पठ् => पठित्वा Note, धातु-s, which are inherently सेट् (स-इट् = with इट्), i.e. those, which admit or invite आगम of इ, will have आगम of इ before affixing त्वा. Hence पठ्+इ = पठि then पठि+त्वा => पठित्वा
    1. For धातु क्लिश् (= to suffer, to cause trouble) affixing त्वा happens with or without इडागम (आगम of इ) as per सूत्रम् (7’2’50) – क्लिशः क्त्वानिष्ठयोः (This सूत्रम् takes अनुवृत्ति-s of वा and इडागमः) Hence क्लिश्+त्वा => क्लिष्ट्वा or क्लिशित्वा
  4. गम् => गत्वा, नम् => नत्वा. Here म् has become lost (has suffered a लोपः). See note below on this formation style #4
  5. भिद् => भित्त्वा, छिद् => छित्त्वा Note, here द् has changed to त्
  6. मुच् / मुञ्च् => मुक्त्वा, भुज् / भुञ्ज् => भुक्त्वा Here च् and ज् have changed to क् and the nasal ञ् has become dropped off.
  7. दृश् => दृष्ट्वा i.e. श् changed to ष् and त्वा changed to ट्वा, rather त् changed to ट्. See also क्लिष्ट्वा at (3-a) above.  
  8. स्था => स्थित्वा Here आ has become (has changed to, has suffered an आदेश as) इ
  9. वस् => उषित्वा Here वस् has changed to उष् and an extra इ has come in (there is आगम of इ). In वस् changing to उष्, there are actually two changes – (a) व् has changed to उ (b) स् has changed to ष्. Change (a) is सम्प्रसारणम् as specified in सूत्रम् – इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम् (1’1’45)

For understanding formation style #2, as of भू =>भूत्वा, कृ => कृत्वा, there is an interesting सूत्रम् – न क्त्वा सेट् (1’2’18)

  • In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (3322) this सूत्रम् is detailed as सेट् (स-इट्) क्त्वा किन्न (कित् न) स्यात् । शयित्वा । सेट् किम् । कृत्वा
  • It would be good to paraphrase this as न क्त्वा (if) सेट्, (but) कित्,
  • meaning,  क्त्वा which is सेट् (स-इट् = with इट्), which admits or invites आगम of इ, shall not be क्त्वा, but it will be कित्, i.e. with क् dropped, i.e. only त्वा as in शयित्वा, कृत्वा.

Formation style #3 has been already detailed above only.

In respect of formation style #4 of गम् => गत्वा, नम् => नत्वा, where म् has become lost (has suffered a लोपः), there is

  1. सूत्रम् (6’4’37) अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति
  2. अनुदात्त-उपदेश-वनति-तनोति-आदीनाम् अनुनासिकलोपः झलि क्ङिति
  3. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (2428) this is detailed as अनुनासिक-इति लुप्तषष्ठीकं वनतीतरेषां विशेषणम् । अनुनासिकान्तानामेषां वनतेश्च लोपः स्याज्झलादौ क्ङिति परे । यमिरमिनमिगमिहनिमन्यतयोऽनुदात्तोपदेशाः । तनुक्षणुक्षिणुऋणुतृणुघृणुवनुमनुतोनोत्यादयः । हतः । घ्नन्ति ॥
  4. From the details in English translation of Ashtadhyayi by Shrish Chandra Vasu, one gets to understand that “When affixing a कित्-प्रत्यय, the final nasal अनुनासिक of धातु-s is elided, is dropped off, if the अनुनासिक is preceded by अनुदात्त vowel. For example म्+क्त्वा => ग(म्)त्वा => त्वा. Note, the vowel अ in is अनुदात्त. Hence it is marked with underscore.

So, क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s for different धातु-s would be obtained by different प्रक्रिया-s.

Basically however obtaining क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s is प्रक्रिया of धातु+त्वा. Of course, धातु-s are either vowel-ending or consonant-ending. So, forming क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s should be प्रक्रिया-s of vowel+consonant (अच्+हल् = अज्झल्-प्रक्रिया-s or consonant+consonant (हल् followed by हल् i.e. हल् हलि)-प्रक्रिया-s. By such token, the applicable rules should be संधि-नियम-s or  संधि-सूत्र-s only. As is obvious, consonant+consonant (हल् followed by हल् i.e. हल्-हलि)-प्रक्रिया-s should be as per संधि-सूत्र-s for व्यञ्जनसंधि-s.

But it should be also noted, that for धातु-s, one takes note of, not just the ending वर्ण, but also of the penultimate वर्ण called as उपधवर्ण, because the उपधवर्ण also has an influence in the प्रक्रिया.

शुभमस्तु !



Meta-rules about use of विभक्ति-s

What comes to mind as a good example to understand use of विभक्ति-s is the सूत्रम् – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् (8’3’32) Let us proceed to study this सूत्रम् by the ordained method. 

So, first पदच्छेद-s => ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङमुट् नित्यम् 

Next, let us identify the प्रातिपदिक-s and accordingly, their विभक्ति-वचन-analysis. 

ङमः (ङम् 6’1) ह्रस्वात् (ह्रस्व 5’1) अचि (अच् 7’1) ङमुट् (ङम्-उट् 1’1) नित्यम् (0’0)

  1. The प्रातिपदिक ङम् is a प्रत्याहार covering the अनुनासिक-s ङ् ण् न् Here, since ङमः is (ङम् 6’1), the sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति used here denotes what has to become “of ङम्”
  2. Next, since ह्रस्वात् is (ह्रस्व 5’1), the fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति connotes “when preceded by”. Here, when preceded by ह्रस्व. Since ह्रस्व is a characteristics of vowels, ह्रस्वात् means “when preceded by अ इ उ ऋ or लृ”
  3.  Next, in अचि (अच् 7’1) the प्रातिपदिक अच् is a प्रत्याहार covering all vowels. The seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति here connotes “when followed by”. So here अचि means “when followed by any vowel”.
  4. Next, we have ङमुट्, which is a compound word made up the components ङम् and उट्. Of these ङम्, as noted above, is a प्रत्याहार covering the अनुनासिक-s ङ् ण् न्. The second component उट् is a terminology used in अष्टाध्यायी for an आगम.  So, ङमुट् (ङम्-उट्) means ङम् come in as उट्, i.e there will be आगम of ङम्. 
  5. नित्यम् means always. 

Putting together the five ‘meaning’-statements we get overall meaning of the सूत्रम् as (1) of ङम् (2) when preceded by अ इ उ ऋ or लृ (3) when followed by any vowel (4) there will be आगम of ङम् (5) always. 

The सूत्रम् has been explained exactly like this and with examples by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. See Para 134 – ह्रस्वात्परो यो ङम् तदन्तं यत्पदं तस्मात्परस्याऽचो नित्यं ङमुडागमः स्यात् । प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा (प्रत्यङ् + आत्मा। सुगण्णीशः । सन्नच्युतः ॥

  • Note प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा is प्रत्यङ् + आत्मा Here ङ् is preceded by अ and is followed by आ. 
  • सुगण्णीशः is सुगण् + ईशः. Here, ण् is preceded by अ and is followed by ई.
  • सन्नच्युतः is सन् + अच्युतः. Here न् is preceded by अ and is followed by अ. Also in गीता 3’36 there is अनिच्छन्नपि (अनिच्छन्+अपि) न् is preceded by अ and is followed by अ.
  • In ईशावास्योपनिषत् at the beginning of second मन्त्र is the word कुर्वन्नेवेह (कुर्वन् एव इह). Note कुर्वन् + एव = कुर्वन्नेव. Here न् is preceded by अ and is followed by ए. 
  • For a counter example तान् + अहम् (गीता 16’19) does NOT become तान्नहम् because here न् is preceded by आ, which is not ह्रस्व. तान् + अहम् is simply तानहम्. Also पितॄन् + अथ becomes पितॄनथ (see गीता 1’26), because न् is preceded by ॠ which is दीर्घ. 
  • अस्मिन् + उद्यमे should be अस्मिन्नुद्यमे because न् is preceded by इ and is followed by उ. 

Are the meanings (fifth case = when preceded by), (sixth case = of), (seventh case = when followed by) so stated in अष्टाध्यायी ? 

Yes, in respect of fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य<1-1-67> which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 41 as पञ्चमीनिर्देशेन क्रियमाणं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य परस्य ज्ञेयम् ॥  

In respect of sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा <1-1-49> which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 38 as अनिर्धारितसम्बन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या । स्थानं च प्रसङ्गः ॥ This is translated into English at <http://panini.phil.hhu.de/panini/panini/browse/> as “The force of the genitive case in a sûtra is that of the phrase “in the place of” when no special rules qualify the sense of the genitive.”

In respect of seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य (1’1’66) which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 40 as सप्तमीनिर्देशेन विधीयमानं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य पूर्वस्य बोध्यम् ॥ This is translated into English at <http://panini.phil.hhu.de/panini/panini/browse/> as “When a term is exhibited in the seventh case in these sûtras, the operation directed, is to be understood as affecting the state of what immediately precedes that which the term denotes.”

Mentioned above are the main सूत्र-s for पञ्चमी षष्ठी and सप्तमी विभक्ति-s. But they are not all. Nevertheless they contain the essential concepts about विभक्ति-s of different words in a सूत्रम्. 

शुभमस्तु !




On-going study of उपनिषद्-s among my circle of friends prompts this study of लेट्-लकार.

As is well-known, तिङन्त-s of धातु-s are conjugated in 10 लकार-s. This is summarized in the verse =>

लट् वर्तमाने लेट् वेदे भूते लुङ्-लङ्-लिटस्तथा |

विध्याशिषौ लिङ्-लोटौ लुट्-लृट्-लृङ् च भविष्यति ||

The mention लेट् वेदे in the verse makes one curious to know what this लेट्-लकार is – is it a tense (past, present, future) or a mood (imperative, potential, benedictine, ..) ?

Is it discussed in अष्टाध्यायी ? Well, yes, there is सूत्रम् – लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) Obviously, since लिङ्-लकार is a लकार of mood, लेट्-लकार is also a लकार of mood. This सूत्रम् is discussed in Para 3424 in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी under the chapter #67 वैदिकी प्रक्रिया.

Dr. Pushpa Dikshit has discussed this लेट्-लकार in her YouTube व्याख्यानम् at <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lVPBTJboREE> from 4:09 minutes onward. In the portion prior to this point, she challenges the concept of सिद्धान्तकौमुदी discussing this लेट्-लकार in chapter #67 वैदिकी प्रक्रिया. She contends that one does not find in अष्टाध्यायी any such प्रक्रिया-s, which can be or should be called as वैदिकी प्रक्रिया-s, i.e. प्रक्रिया-s, which apply only to words in वैदिक texts.  Since her व्याख्यानम् is very valuable to understand लेट्-लकार in particular, I am trying to compile notes based on, what I can comprehend from her impeccable Sanskrit speech.

Importantly, she contends that लेट्-लकार is itself of two types सार्वधातुक and आर्धधातुक. The सूत्रम् – सिब्बहुलं लेटि (3’4’34) specifies that one finds in लेट्-लकार, extensive use of the suffix सिप्. This suffix सिप्, she contends, is itself आर्धधातुक, maybe, because, being one out of the first nine तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s [see सूत्रम् 3’4’78 – (तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्मिप्वस्मस्)-(आताम्थास्आथाम्ध्वम्इड्वहिमहिङ्)] > सिप्-प्रत्यय applies only to परस्मैपदी धातु-s.

She makes an interesting proposition, that with two types of लिङ्-लकार-s and two types of लेट्-लकार-s, total number of लकार-s be considered to be twelve. Among the ten लकार-s used in लौकिक संस्कृत, only 4 लकार-s, लट्-लोट्-लङ्-(विधि)लिङ् are सार्वधातुक. One may add as fifth सार्वधातुक लकार, the सिब्लेट्, i.e. that लेट्, when the तिङ्-प्रत्यय is not सिप्. Accordingly, rest 7 लकार-s लिट्-लुट्-लृट्-सिब्लेट्-(आशीर्)लिङ्-लुङ्-लृङ् become आर्धधातुक लकार-s. 

But this contention to consider सिब्लेट् as आर्धधातुक seems to be open to argument. Actually, the thought of classifying लकार-s into classes as सार्वधातुक and आर्धधातुक, itself seems to be questionable, because all लकार-s take तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s and all तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are सार्वधातुक, as per तिङ्-शित् सार्वधातुकम् (3’4’113). 

Anyway, the next point of curiosity certainly is to know for what sense, as tense or as mood does one find use of लेट्-लकार in वैदिक texts. Of course लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) and उपसंवादाशङ्कयोश्च (3’4’8) clarify that. From लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) one can deduce that, in whichever sense लिङ्-लकार is used in लौकिक संस्कृत, in all those senses, one may find use of लेट्-लकार in वैदिक texts. The senses in which लिङ्-लकार is used in लौकिक संस्कृत are many. Just to quote a few =>

  1. 3’3’134 आशंसावचने लिङ्
  2. 3’3’143 विभाषा कथमि लिङ् च
  3. 3’3’144 किंवृत्ते लिङ्लृटौ
  4. 3’3’147 जातुयदोर्लिङ्
  5. 3’3’152 उताप्योः समर्थयोर्लिङ्
  6. 3’3’156 हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ्
  7. 3’3’157 इच्छार्थेषु लिङ्लोटौ
  8. 3’3’158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् + 3’3’159 लिङ् च
  9. 3’3’161 विधिनिमन्‍त्रणामन्‍त्रणाधीष्‍टसंप्रश्‍नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्
  10. 3’3’167 कालसमयवेलासु तुमुन् + 3’3’168 लिङ् यदि
  11. 3’3’172 शकि लिङ् च
  12. 3’3’173 आशिषि लिङ्लोटौ

Further next point would be to understand the प्रक्रिया-s which dictate conjugations, i.e. obtaining तिङन्त-s in लेट्-लकार for different धातु-s. As is the case of any लकार, in लेट्-लकार also there would be 9 तिङन्त-s in परस्मैपदम् and 9 तिङन्त-s in आत्मनेपदम्. The conjugation प्रक्रिया-s are dictated by सूत्र-s –

  1. लेटोऽडाटौ (3’4’94) – लेटः अट्-आटौ meaning, there would be अट् (अ) and आट् (आ) आगम-s in लेट् Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – तारिषत् (ऋ. 1’25’12) मन्दिषत् | पताति दिद्युत् (ऋ. 7’25’1) उदधिं च्यावयाति (तै. सं. 3’5’5’2)
  2. आत ऐ (3’4’95) – आत् (आ) would suffer आदेश as ऐ Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – मन्त्रयैते, मन्त्रयैथे, करवैते करवैथे
  3. वैतोऽन्यत्र (3’4’96) – Or एत् (ए) will suffer आदेश at other instances – Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – अते=>अतै, अन्ते=>अन्तै, असे=>असै, अध्वे=>अध्वै | “सप्ताहानि शासै | अहमेव पशूनामीशै (काठ. सं. 25’1)
  4. इतश्च लोपः परस्मैपदेषु (3’4’97) – In परस्मैपद-conjugations there would be deletion of इ-s. Note, here इत् means इ only and not what इत्-s are detailed in सूत्र-s (13’2) to (1’3’8). So the इ-s in परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय-s तिझिसिमि will suffer deletion. Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – अति=>अत् अन्ति=> अन् असि=>अस् (अः) अमि=> अम् 
  5. स उत्तमस्य (3’4’98) – From प्रत्यय-s वस्मस् of उत्तमपुरुष their स्-endings will get deleted. 

May I stop here as a preliminary study or brief overview of लेट्-लकार.

शुभमस्तु |



Flow-Chart for इत्-s

After learning the सूत्र-s related to इत्-s, one should be able to detect the इत्-s, if any are present in the शिवसूत्र-s or in any word in अष्टाध्यायी or in धातुपाठ.

One Mr. Ramakrishnan Venkateshwaran suggested that one may be able to prepare a Flow-Chart for this. I readily grabbed the suggestion and have successfully composed the flow-chart. For the sake of easy readability, I have made two images – Part 1/2 and Part 2/2 as below.

to check any वर्ण in शिवसूत्र or अष्टाध

to check any वर्ण in शिवसूत्र or अष्टाध शुभमस्तु !


अष्टाध्याय्याः पदशः अभ्यासः – प्रास्ताविकम्

|| अष्टाध्याय्याः पदशः अभ्यासः – प्रास्ताविकम् ||

I have been studying अष्टाध्यायी in various ways. One way to study may be by doing पदशः अभ्यासः. It may end up becoming a dictionary of अष्टाध्यायी. Also, since अष्टाध्यायी is a standard reference book of Sanskrit grammar, would it be different from “Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar” authored jointly by महामहोपाध्याय काशिनाथशास्त्री अभ्यंकर and जयदेव मोहनलाल शुक्ल ? I do not know at this stage.

When doing पदशः अभ्यासः, I had to bear in mind the meaning of पद itself.

  • In the tradition of Sanskrit grammar, there has been a thought, attributed to यास्काचार्य, that पद-s in Sanskrit are of four types – (1) नाम (2) आख्यात (3) उपसर्ग (4) निपात.
  • In अष्टाध्यायी there is a definition in सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14 सि 29 संज्ञाप्रकरणे) meaning पद is “that which has सुप् or तिङ्-ending”.
  • In the introduction in their book, Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar संस्कृत-व्याकरणस्य शब्दकोशः following श्लोक-s are mentioned, summarizing what all studies काशिनाथशास्त्री अभ्यंकर and जयदेव मोहनलाल शुक्ल did in compiling their कोश.

प्रातिशाख्य-महाभाष्य-कौमुदी-काशिका-दिकान् / ग्रन्थान् वाक्यपदीयांश्च अभ्यस्य  श्रमपूर्वकम् //1// ग्रन्थानां ग्रन्थकाराणां नामानि प्रत्ययांस्तथा / विशिष्टशास्त्रीयार्थस्य वाचकान् पारिभाषिकान् //2// शब्दान् समीक्ष्य संज्ञादीन् आदेशान् आगमांस्तथा / यदारब्धं संग्रथनं कालात् प्राक् सुबहोर्मया //3// अभ्यंकरोपाह्वकुले वासुदेवस्य सूनुना / काशिनाथाभिधेनेदं कोषरूपं समापितम् //4//

As mentioned in these श्लोक-s, words in अष्टाध्यायी are पारिभाषिक-s, संज्ञा-s, प्रत्यय-s, आदेश-s, आगम-s, etc.

Certainly they put in hard labor श्रमपूर्वकम् in compiling the कोश. And the work spread over number of years “started long time ago” सुबहोः कालात् प्राक् आरब्धम् !

By the way, I also came across a mention that in the various सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी, there are 156 अव्ययानि 1574 प्रथमान्तानि 34 द्वितीयान्तानि 115 तृतीयान्तानि 3 चतुर्थ्यन्तानि 1308 पञ्चम्यन्तानि 1005 षष्ठ्यन्तानि 1349 सप्तम्यन्तानि कुलतः 5544 पदानि of these types.

सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14 सि 29 संज्ञाप्रकरणे) warrants that अचः and अचि be treated as two different पद-s, though they are सुबन्त-s of one and the same basic प्रातिपदिकम् “अच्”.

In compound words, there would be more than one पद-s. For example सूत्रम् – स्वौजसमौट्….. (4’1’2 सि 183 अजन्तपुंल्लिङ्गप्रकरणे) is a single word, but contains 21 components and सूत्रम् – तिप्तस्झि… (3’4’78 सि 2154 “तिङन्ते भ्वादयः”-इत्यस्मिन् प्रकरणे) also is a single word, but contains 18 components !

For my study, I would take both अचः and अचि together. So this study shall rather be प्रातिपदिकशः than पदशः. But I may have to treat components in compound words separately. 

Actually अष्टाध्यायी does contain some तिङन्त-s also, though very few. Those studies will rather be धातुशः than तिङन्तशः.

*Note, the mention “1’4’14 सि 29 संज्ञाप्रकरणे”, contains the सूत्रक्रमाङ्क 1’4’14 followed by the paragraph-number सि 29 in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी and also title of the प्रकरणम् the chapter, e.g. संज्ञाप्रकरणे.

This note is, as such, a general introductory on my plan for this study.

महान्तः संदर्भग्रन्थाः Major References –

  1. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी – वासुदेव-लक्ष्मणशास्त्री-पणशीकर-महाभागेन संपादिता /
  2. पाठक-चित्राव-वर्ययोः रचितः अष्टाध्यायी-शब्दकोशः (Word Index) <https://ia600307.us.archive.org/27/items/5990010905076WordIndexToPaniniSutraPathaAndParisistasVidyanidhiSiddheshvarshastr/Pathak%20and%20Chitrao%2C%20Word%20Index_1935%20DLI5990010905076.pdf> अत्र प्रापणीयः
  3. अभ्यंकर-शुक्ल-वर्ययोः Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar संस्कृत-व्याकरणस्य शब्दकोशः /<http://lukashevichus.info/knigi/abhyankar_shukla_sans_gram_dic.pdf> अत्र प्रापणीयः /

शुभमस्तु !


अष्टाध्यायीपदाभ्यासे – 1

अष्टाध्यायीपदाभ्यासे (1) अ-इति पदम्   

(अधः सूत्रक्रमाङ्कस्य पश्चात् यः सि.-क्रमाङ्कः सः सिद्धान्तकौमुद्याः)  

I just got an idea of studying every पदम् in अष्टाध्यायी, to understand, in what all shades, one comes across the पदम् in अष्टाध्यायी. To compile the study, it was easier to do it mostly in Sanskrit.

It was logical to start the study with the study of अ-इति पदम्. I got great help from Ref. (3) in particular. But my arrangement is different. Hope, it is better articulated.

संदर्भग्रन्थाः Bibliography –

  1. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी – वासुदेव-लक्ष्मणशास्त्री-पणशीकर-महाभागेन संपादिता /
  2. पाठक-चित्राव-वर्ययोः रचितः अष्टाध्यायी-शब्दकोशः (Word Index) <https://ia600307.us.archive.org/27/items/5990010905076WordIndexToPaniniSutraPathaAndParisistasVidyanidhiSiddheshvarshastr/Pathak%20and%20Chitrao%2C%20Word%20Index_1935%20DLI5990010905076.pdf&gt; अत्र प्रापणीयः
  3. अभ्यंकर-शुक्ल-वर्ययोः Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar संस्कृत-व्याकरणस्य शब्दकोशः /<http://lukashevichus.info/knigi/abhyankar_shukla_sans_gram_dic.pdf&gt; अत्र प्रापणीयः /

  1. वर्णमालायाः शिवसूत्रेष्वपि प्रथमः वर्णः – अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि (गीता 10’33)
  2. कण्ठ्यः स्वरः
  3. अत् – अत् = अ-इत्येव / अत् इति अष्टाध्याय्यां पारिभाषिका संज्ञा / अत् इति शब्दः अनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / तस्य विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया /
  4. उच्चाराः – अकारस्य उच्चारणम् अष्टादशम् – मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः (1’1’8 सि. 9) ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (1’2’27 सि. 4) उच्चैरुदात्तः (1’2’29 सि. 5) नीचैरनुदात्तः (1’2’30 सि. 6) समाहारः स्वरितः (1’2’31 सि. 7) इत्येतैः सूत्रैः /
  5. अवसानसूचकः – अ अ इति (8’4’68, सि. 11) / एकस्य विवृतत्वात् अपरस्य संवृतत्वात् संध्यभावः /
  6. आगमः (अट्) – लुङ्-लङ्-लृङ्-क्ष्वडुदात्तः (6’4’71, सि. 2206) / लुङ्-लङ्-लृङ्-क्षु अट् उदात्तः / लुङ्-लङ्-लृङ्-एषु परेषु अङ्गस्य अडागमः स्यात् स च उदात्तः /
    1. अट् इति आगमः एकः न तु प्रत्याहारः /
    2. अडागमस्य उल्लेखः अनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / अतः तस्य विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /
  7. अ-कारस्य आदेशाः
    1. वृद्धिरेचि (6’1’88 सि. 72) – यथा देवस्य ऐश्वर्यम् इति देवैश्वर्यम् (देव+ऐश्वर्यम्)
    2. आद्गुणः (6’1’87 सि. 69) – अवर्णादचि परे पूर्वपरयोरेको गुणादेशः स्यात्संहितायाम् / यथा उपेन्द्रः (उप+इन्द्रः)
    3. अकारस्य वृद्धिः आकारः / यथा मम ⇒ मामकः (मम अयमिति मामकः क-इति तद्धित-प्रत्ययः) / गङ्गा ⇒ गाङ्गमम्बु (गाङ्गम् अम्बु), गङ्गायाः इदमिति गाङ्गम् / *गाङ्गम्-इति पदस्य सिद्धिः श्रीमता एच्-एन्-भट-महोदयेन मह्यं विविक्ता / कतिचिद्दीर्घम् विवेचनं तेषाम् / अत्र न सुकरम् / 
    4. अकारः आकारस्य गुणः / यथा गङ्गा ⇒ सप्तगङ्गम् (गङ्गा सप्तधा यत्र तत् सप्तगङ्गम् क्षेत्रम्) *श्रीमता एच्-एन्-भट-महोदयेन मह्यं विविक्तं यत् सप्तगङ्गम् इत्यत्र गुणादेशः न / अतोऽम् (7’1’24 सि. 309) इति सूत्रानुसारेण अतः (अकारस्य) अम्-इति आदेशः / कतिचिद्दीर्घम् विवेचनं तेषाम् / अत्र न सुकरम् / 
  8. प्रत्ययः – अ-इति प्रत्ययः
    1. अ प्रत्ययात् (3’3’102, सि. 3279) – प्रत्ययान्तधातुभ्यः इच्छार्थे स्त्रियाम् अ-प्रत्ययात् (भवति) / अ-वर्णः प्रत्ययः इति युज्यते इति सूचितम् अस्मिन् सूत्रे / यथा कृ ⇒ (सनि) चिकीर्ष ⇒ (स्त्री.) चिकीर्षा / पुत्रकाम्य (पुं.) ⇒ पुत्रकाम्या (स्त्री.) /
    2. अ साम्प्रतिके (4’3’9, सि. 1379) – मध्यार्थे अ-प्रत्ययेन मध्यशब्दात् यथा नातिदीर्घं नातिह्रस्वं मध्यं काष्ठम् / नात्युत्कृष्टो नात्यवकृष्टो मध्यः वैयाकरणः / मध्या स्त्री /
    3. अ च (4’3’31, सि. 1404) – अमावास्या-शब्दात् अकारप्रत्ययः स्यात् /
    4. लुङ्-लकारस्य लक्षणे चङ् (3’1’48 सि. 2312) अङ् (3’1’52 सि. 2438) /
    5. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः श (3’1’77 सि. 2534) शप् (3’1’68 सि. 2167) इति विकरणप्रत्ययौ /
    6. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः कृत्-प्रत्ययाः अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, क, ख घञ् ट, ड, ण  इत्यनेके तृतीये अध्याये /
    7. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः तद्धित-प्रत्ययाः अच्, अञ्, अण् अ इत्यनेके चतुर्थ-पञ्चमाध्याययोः /
    8. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः उणादि-प्रत्ययाः अन्, अल् क, कन्, ट, टन्, ड  इत्यनेके /
    9. अ-इत्येव प्रयुज्यमाणाः समासान्तिकाः अ, अच्, डच्, टच्, षच् ष अप् अञ्, (5’4’73 तः 5’4’121 पर्यन्तेषु)
    10. प्रत्येकस्य प्रत्ययस्य विवेचनमनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / अतः तेषां विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /
  9. प्रत्याहारेषु – अ-वर्णः अधोनिर्दिष्टेषु पञ्चसु प्रत्याहारेषु /
    1. अक्अक्-इत्यस्मिन् प्रत्याहारे अ-इ-उ-ऋ-लृ-इति वर्णाः यथा सूत्रे -अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6’1’101, सि. 85) – सवर्ण-संहितायां सर्वेषाम् एकादेशेन दीर्घः एव / अत्र अ+अ, अ+आ, आ+अ, आ+आ एतासु सर्वासु संहितासु आ-इत्येव एकादेशः / तथैव इ-कारस्य, उ-कारस्य, ऋ-कारस्य लृ-कारस्य च /
    2. अच् – अच्- प्रत्याहारे सर्वे स्वराः यथा सूत्रे – नाज्झलौ (1’1’10, सि. 13) – न अच्-हलौ /
    3. अण् – अण्-प्रत्याहारे
      1. प्रायः अ-इ-उ-वर्णाः / यथा सूत्रे – अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः (1’1’69, सि. 14) – अण्-उत्-इत्-सवर्णस्य च अप्रत्ययः /
      2. अथवा सर्वे स्वराः अन्तस्थाश्च – यथा सूत्रे –
    4. अल् – यथा सूत्रे – अलोन्त्यस्य (1’1’52 सि. 42) – अल्-इति प्रत्याहारे सर्वे वर्णाः /
    5. अश् – अश्-प्रत्याहारे सर्वे स्वराः सर्वे अन्तस्थाः अनुनासिकाः सर्वाणि मृदुव्यञ्जनानि च / यथा सूत्रे – भोभगोऽघोऽपूर्वस्य योऽशि (8’3’17)
    6. प्रायः सर्वे प्रत्याहाराःबहुषु सूत्रेषु  / अतः तेषां विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /
  10. संहितायाम्
    1. अच्-सन्धिषु
      1. अ-इति पूर्ववर्णः / यथा
        1. आद्गुणः (6’1’87 सि. 69) – अ-वर्णात् अचि परे पूर्वपरयोः गुणैकादेशः / यथा उपेन्द्रः /
        2. वृद्धिरेचि (6’1’85, सि. 72) / वृद्धिः एचि / आत्-परे एच्-वर्णेषु सत्सु वृद्धिः / यथा कृष्णैकत्वम् देवैश्वर्यम् /
        3. एत्येधत्यूठ्सु (6’1’86, सि. 73) (काशिकायाम् सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां च 6’1’89 ?) – एति-एधति-ऊठ्-इत्येतेषु ये आदिवन्तः अचः तेषाम् पूर्वं अ-वर्णे सति पूर्वपरयोः एकादेशः वृद्धिश्च / यथा उप+एति = उपैति, प्र+ऊढ = प्रौढ /
      2. अ-इति परवर्णः / यथा
        1. इको यणचि (6’1’77, सि. 47) – इकः यण् अचि / अचि इति अचः परवर्णाः इति निर्देशः /
          1. अत्र अच् इति अकारान्वितः प्रत्याहारः / एतादृशाः अ-कारान्विताः अनेके प्रत्याहाराः / किञ्चित् विवेचनं निम्नम् /
        2. एचोऽयवायावः (6’1’78 सि. 61)
        3. एङः पदान्तादति (6’1’109 सि. 86) – पदान्तात् एङः अति परे पूर्वरूपम् एकादेशः स्यात् / यथा हरेऽत्र विष्णोऽव / अत्र अ-कारस्य लोपः एव / तथापि अयं लोपः “लोपः शाकल्यस्य (8’3’19 सि. 67)” इति सूत्रेण न / अ-कारदर्शकः अवग्रहः प्रायः युज्यते तथापि योजनीयः एव इति न /
    2. हल्-सन्धिषु
      1. कस्यापि व्यञ्जनस्य परे यः अकारः सः तत् व्यञ्जनम् अकारयुक्तं करोति / यथा अहम् + अस्मि = अहमस्मि /
        1. अकारपूर्वं व्यञ्जनं यदि ङ् वा ण् वा न् वा तदा तेषामेव आगमः तेन द्वित्तम् / अत्र सूत्रम् “ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् (8’3’32 सि. 134) / यथा कुर्वन् + अस्मि = कुर्वन्नस्मि /
    3. विसर्गसन्धिषु
      1. अ-इति पूर्ववर्णः परवर्णः च ⇒ (अ + विसर्गस्य उ = ओ) / परवर्णे स्थितस्य अकारस्य लोपः / लुप्तः अकारः अवग्रहेण निर्दिश्यते / यथा सः + अहम् = सोऽहम्
      2. अ-इति पूर्ववर्णः अन्यः कोऽपि स्वरः परवर्णः ⇒ विसर्गस्य लोपः / यथा अर्जुनः + उवाच = अर्जुन उवाच
      3. अन्यः कोऽपि स्वरः पूर्ववर्णः अ-इति परवर्णः ⇒
        1. विसर्गस्य लोपः / यथा बालाः + अत्र = बाला अत्र “लोपः शाकल्यस्य (8’3’19 सि. 67)” इति सूत्रेण /
        2. विसर्गस्य य-कारः “भोभगोऽघोऽपूर्वस्य योऽशि (8’3’17)” इति सूत्रेण / यथा बालाः अत्र = बालाय् अत्र
          1. बालाय् अत्र = बालायत्र (?) / बालाय्यत्र (?)  
  11. नञर्थे समासेषु
    1. नञ्-समासेषु (नलोपो नञः 4’3’73 सि. 757) / यथा अप्रत्ययः (1’1’69, सि. 69) अकर्मकः [अतिङ् (कृदतिङ्ग् (3’1’93, सि. 374)] एतादृशाः अनेके सामासिकाः शब्दाः अनेकेषु सूत्रेषु / तेषां विवेचनं स्वतन्त्रतया यथानुक्रमेण /  

अस्मिन्नभ्यासे (1’1’8 सि. 9), (1’1’10, सि. 13) (1’1’52 सि. 42) (1’1’69, सि. 14) (1’2’27 सि. 4), (1’2’29 सि. 5), (1’2’30 सि. 6), (1’2’31 सि. 7) (3’1’48 सि. 2312) (3’1’52 सि. 2438) (3’1’68 सि. 2167) (3’1’77 सि. 2534) (3’1’93, सि. 374) (3’3’102, सि. 3279) (4’3’9, सि. 1379) (4’3’31, सि. 1404) (4’3’73 सि. 757) (5’4’73 तः 5’4’121 पर्यन्तानि) (6’1’77, सि. 47) (6’1’78 सि. 61) (6’1’85, सि. 72) (6’1’87 सि. 69) (6’1’88 सि. 72) (6’1’86/89(?), सि. 73) (6’1’101, सि. 85) (6’1’109 सि. 86) (6’4’71, सि. 2206) (8’3’17) (8’3’19 सि. 67) (8’3’32 सि. 134) (8’4’68, सि. 11) एतैः त्रिंशदधिकैः (30+) सूत्रैः विवेचनम् /

शुभमस्तु !


Adverbs in Sanskrit

Adverbs are one of the eight parts of speech, viz. (1) noun (2) pronoun (3) adjective (4) verb (5) adverb (6) preposition (7) conjunction (8) interjection.

Adverbs again are of different types – adverbs of manner, time, condition, (reason, purpose), place.

In a sentence they can be identified as answers to the four interrogatives – how, when, why, where.

In a sentence adverbs could be specific words such as “fast”, “suddenly” or there can be adverbial phrases such as “in the morning”. In a complex sentence, there can be adverbial sub-clauses.

In the grammar of Indian languages, the terminology for “adverb” is क्रियाविशेषण. But in the grammar of Sanskrit, there is no such term as क्रियाविशेषणम्. If so, are there no adverbs in Sanskrit ? There have to be. Every language has to have adverbs. If Sanskrit also has adverbs, but they are not called क्रियाविशेषणम्, what is the Sanskrit terminology ?

Actually, even in English grammar “adverb”s are not a class of words. In the phrase “in the morning”, “in” is a preposition, “the” is an article (a type of preposition), “morning” is a noun. Yet the total phrase “in the morning” is adverbial. So, parts of speech are not classes of words.

A word or a phrase or a clause in a sentence becomes that part of speech, depending upon what role it is performing.

We also know however, that nouns and pronouns are different classes of words. So words are of different classes.

In “cold water” the word “cold” is adjective of “water”. In “I am having cold”, “cold” is noun. In “It is so cold here” cold is adverbial. That raises a question, “What class of word is the word “cold” ?

I think great confusion is caused by them being called as parts of speech. A “class of a word” and a “part of speech” ought to be understood as different grammatical concepts. But when I search on the internet for explanation of “classes of words” I get “classes of words (or parts of speech)”.  Isn’t this wrong ?

Since adverbs perform adverbial functions, it would be good to understand what the adverbial functions are. Basically an adverb adds to the verb, i.e. it gives more information about the action connoted by the verb. The additional information will be answers to four interrogatives – how, when, why, where कथम् कदा किमर्थम् कुत्र.

Now, adverbs do not undergo any inflection, even when other words in a sentence may. For example He walks fast (singular) सः वेगेन चलति (एकवचनम्) They walk fast (plural) ते वेगेन चलन्ति (बहुवचनम्) A word, which does not undergo any inflection are called as indeclinable अव्ययम्. Is वेगेन an indeclinable ? It is already declined from the root word वेग. In Sanskrit declensions of words are obtained by affixing suffixes प्रत्यय-s. Should that mean that indeclinables are words, which do not have any प्रत्यय-s affixed ?

By the above, we have following questions to explore –

(1) What are अव्यय-s, the indeclinables ?

(2) How are adverbs related to अव्यय-s ?

(3) Are there adverbs other than अव्यय-s ? If yes, where and how does one get them ?

  1. In अष्टाध्यायी अव्ययम् is defined by the सूत्रम् – स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (1’1’37) – Note, here स्वरादि does not mean beginning with a vowel (स्वर+आदि) It means स्वर्+आदि, rather स्वः-आदि i.e. स्वः &c. There are two exhaustive lists of अव्यय-s in गणपाठ* – Note, study about गणपाठ* is linked here.
    1. स्वरादि-list with reference to (1’1’37) beginning with स्वर्
    2. चादि-list beginning with च, with reference to चादयोऽसत्त्वे (1’4’57).
    3. Words in these lists do not have any explicit  प्रत्यय-s and stay indeclinable. Hence they are अव्यय-s very truly.
    4. These lists include conjunction-pairs of अव्यय-s such as यथा-तथा (so .. as) यदा-तदा (when … then) यदि-तर्हि (If .. then) यतः-ततः (because .. hence) यत्र-तत्र (where .. there).  These are adverbial.
      1. But there are also in these lists words which are conjunctions, which are non-adverbial, e.g. च वा अथवा किंवा परन्तु अपि
    5. These lists also contain interjections (or exclamatories) such as हे, भोः, उ, उत, अहो, बत, रे etc. Interjections are often not connected with the sentence. They hence would not be adverbial.
    6. These lists also contain interrogatives, which are considered to be adverbial in English grammar.
    7. In these lists there are words, which are adverbial forthright, e.g. अद्य ह्यः श्वः अत्र तत्र सर्वत्र अन्यत्र सदा अधुना इदानीम् तदानीम् प्रातः सायम् पुरा अनन्तरम् etc.
    8. It seems, it would be good to to sort out the स्वरादि-s and चादि-s into four data-classes viz. Adverbial conjunctions, non-adverbial conjunctions, adverbs and interjections.
  2. अव्ययीभावः – One comes across this word अव्ययीभावः in as many as eight सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी 1’1’41, 2’1’5, 2’4’18, 2’4’83, 4’3’59, 5’4’107, 6’2’121, 6’3’80. Note, अव्ययीभावः means the sense of being indeclinable, though not exactly undeclined or indeclinable. For example “everyday” = प्रतिदिनम् (दिने दिने प्रतिदिनम्) अव्ययीभाव-words are mostly adverbial.
  3. कारके (1’4’23) – Adverbials can also be obtained by declining a word in a case-form कारके by affixing विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s. In English, prepositions to, unto, with, by, for, from, in, at, on, upon, above, under, etc. help composing adverbial phrases. In Sanskrit कारक case-forms are six –
    1. कर्तृकारका प्रथमा the first case is used for subject words.
    2. कर्मकारका द्वितीया 2’3’2, 2’3’8 the second case, e.g. “Goes home” गृहं गच्छति
    3. करणकारका तृतीया 2’3’18 the third case e.g. “walks fast” वेगेन चलति
    4. सम्प्रदाने चतुर्थी 2’3’13 the fourth case e.g. “pleads for peace” शान्तये आह्वयते
    5. अपादाने पञ्चमी 2’3’28 the fifth case, e.g. “outside of house” गृहात् बहिः
    6. अधिकरणे सप्तमी 2’3’36 the seventh case e.g. “sits on the throne” सिंहासने उपविशति.
      1. As has been explained above by examples, adverbials can be obtained in case-forms विभक्ति-s, द्वितीया to पञ्चमी and सप्तमी.
      2. Although I have not any example of प्रथमा विभक्ति in the adverbial sense, adjectival word in neuter gender, singular often become adverbial, e.g He walks fast सः द्रुतम् चलति.
      3. So, we can say that the कारक-concept, as is set in case-forms विभक्ति-s in Sanskrit is substantially the adverbial concept.
      4. This discussion of case-forms विभक्ति-s does not include the sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति. This is because षष्ठी विभक्ति connects two or more nouns, adjectives etc. and concerned words would suffer change in form, in concordance with each other, e.g. sword of a soldier सैनिकस्य खड्गम् swords of soldiers सैनिकानां खड्गानि. The word “soldier” becoming plural will cause the word “sword” also to become plural.
  4. In Sanskrit certain verbal suffixes कृत्-प्रत्यय-s also give adverbial effect e.g. ऋणं कृत्वा घृतं पिबेत्. Here the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय in कृत्वा acts as a conjunct between two actions – (i) ऋणं कृत्वा get loan (if you have to, but) (ii) घृतं पिबेत् do enjoy ghee.
  5. There are also two special constructs in Sanskrit known as सति-सप्तमी and सच्छष्ठी. They make adverbial clauses. For example
    1. इत्थं विचारयति कोषगते द्विरेफे हा हन्त हन्त नलिनीं गज उज्जहार = just when the honeybee in the bosom of the lotus flower was engrossed in such thoughts, alas, an elephant uprooted the lotus. Note, all the words विचारयति कोषगते द्विरेफे are in the seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति and they make an adverbial sub-clause of time, English translation of this is the long-winding “just when the honeybee in the bosom of the lotus flower was engrossed in such thoughts”.
    2. यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः (गीता 2’69) – Here पश्यतो मुनेः (पश्यतः मुनेः) both words – one verbal derivative, the other the subject-word of that verbal derivative – both are in षष्ठी विभक्ति Here पश्यतः मुनेः is in the style of a sub-clause, यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः means, when all the world is awake, it is night (idiomatically) for the sage who is seeing. Note
      1. यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि is adjectival clause qualifying the word निशा
      2. सा निशा = is the main clause
      3. पश्यतो मुनेः = is adverbial phrase of time.
  6. Among numerical words also there are adverbials, e.g. “He stood first”. “First” is a definite number. But in “He came last”, “last” is indefinite. Actually “first” “last” are basically adjectival, but in these example-sentences they are adverbial.

As such grammar of Sanskrit, अष्टाध्यायी in particular, is the science of formatting words, such that the formatted words become parts of speech. Adverbial is also an essential aspect of speech. I have been able to identify as above, six different ways available in Sanskrit for fulfilling this aspect.

शुभमस्तु !


How much of अष्टाध्यायी should one know ? Part 1

I came to deliberate on the subject “How much of अष्टाध्यायी should one know ?” when I was studying together the following words –

  1. श्रुतिः, भूतिः, विभूतिः, आप्तिः प्राप्तिः नीतिः धृतिः स्तुतिः कृतिः सम्पत्तिः विपत्तिः वृत्तिः निवृत्तिः प्रीतिः (15)
  2. गतिः, प्रगतिः मतिः, अनुमतिः विनतिः (5)
  3. कीर्तिः स्थितिः (2)
  4. बुद्धिः ऋद्धिः सिद्धिः वृद्धिः (4)
  5. पुष्टिः वृष्टिः सृष्टिः इष्टिः (4)
  6. कीर्णिः संकीर्णिः विकीर्णिः (3)

There are some common things in all the above words.

  1. They are all feminine nouns.
  2. They are all derived from धातु-s.
  3. They seem to have been derived by affixing some common suffix प्रत्ययः, ति (?)

Whereas there are the common features as above, one can also notice in their grouping, some differentiations.

  1. In the first group, by taking away the suffix ति, we can know the धातु-s. The धातु-s are श्रु, भू, विभू, आप् प्राप् नी धृ स्तु कृ सम्पत् विपत् वृत् निवृत् प्री
  2. In the second group what we have after taking away the suffix ति, is part of the धातु. This means that in the process of affixing the suffix, some part of the धातु is lost, some part suffers लोपः. The धातु-s are – गम् प्रगम् मन् अनुमन् विनम्  
  3. In the third group the धातु undergoes a change आदेशः before affixation of the suffix ति. The धातु-s are – कॄ स्था
  4. In the fourth group, the suffix does not remain ति. It suffers a change आदेशः. But the आदेश has some sound-related relationship with the ending consonant of the धातु. The धातु-s are बुध् ऋध् सिध् वृध्
  5. In the fifth and sixth group the suffix does not remain ति. It suffers a change आदेशः. Also the आदेश does not have any direct relationship with the ending consonant of the धातु. The धातु-s are पुष् वृष् सृज् यज्

Certainly the प्रक्रिया-s of forming feminine nouns from धातु-s are of different types. The प्रक्रिया-s can be understood only by study of अष्टाध्यायी.

As such, meanings of the listed (or similar) words seem to be so straightforward, that one may ask oneself, whether study of concerned प्रक्रिया-s and study of related सूत्र-s of अष्टाध्यायी is a must.

Although as many as 33 words are listed, one cannot get such feminine nouns from all 2200-odd धातु-s. Even among the 33 above, some words are from धातु-s having prefixes i.e. उपसर्ग-s.

By the way, just for curiosity, it may be interesting to note the प्रक्रिया for deriving at least one of those 33 words, say, इष्टिः from यज्.

  1. One should start with the grammatical name of the धातु. Grammatical name of यज् is यजँ. Here the वर्ण-s are य + ज् + अँ (Note the ending अँ is nasal अनुनासिक). The ending अँ becomes इत् by उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् (1’3’2). The अँ would get dropped by तस्य लोपः (1’3’9) That is how we have यज् from यजँ.
  2. On the other side we have the प्रत्ययः क्तिन् (सूत्रम् – स्त्रियां क्तिन् 3’3’94). क्तिन् is also grammatical name of the प्रत्यय. Here the वर्ण-s are क् ति न्. Of these क् is इत् (it is कित्) by लशक्वतद्धिते (1’3’8) and न् is also इत् (it is नित्) by हलन्त्यम् (1’3’3) Both कित् and नित् would get dropped by तस्य लोपः (1’3’9) That is how we have ति from क्तिन्.
    1. This प्रत्यय क्तिन् cannot be used for all धातु-s, because it is not सार्वधातुक प्रत्यय, it is आर्धधातुक by सूत्रम् आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114)
    2. Interpretation of सूत्रम् – स्त्रियां क्तिन् (3’3’94) requires taking cognizance अनुवृत्ति from previous सूत्र-s – अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् (3’3’19) and भावे (3’3’18). This means that, the प्रत्यय क्तिन् helps to get स्त्रियां feminine संज्ञायाम् nouns, where the sense is of अकर्तरि non-active voice, inclusive of भावे non-active voice of intransitive verbs and having the sense of “action” कारके.
  3. Now सूत्रम् वचिस्वपियजादिनां किति (6’1’15) contains specific mention of धातु यज् that,  when affixing a suffix like क्तिन्, which suffers कित्, the य at the beginning आदि of the धातु, will undergo सम्प्रसारणम् (This word सम्प्रसारणम् in सूत्रम् 6’1’13 merits “carry forward” अनुवृत्ति when interpreting सूत्रम् 6’1’15). सम्प्रसारणम् means य in शिवसूत्रम् 5 – ह य व र ट् would change over to इ in शिवसूत्रम् 1 – अ इ उ ण्. We thus come to the stage इज् + तिः
  4. To proceed further from इज् + तिः one should take cognizance of the सूत्रम् – व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः ८।२।३६ By this, the ज् in इज् changes to ष्, i.e. इज् becomes इष्. Actually this change from इज् to इष् has also the condition that the ज् should be followed by झल् (brought forward from सूत्रम् – झलो झलि (8’2’26)). Here we do have ज् followed by त्, which is a झल्. That brings us to the stage इष् + तिः
  5. To proceed further the त् in तिः changes to टिः the change being caused by the ष् in इष् in accordance with सूत्रम् – ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41) Interpretation of this सूत्रम् requires अनुवृत्ति i.e. bringing forward स्तोः from the previous सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40)
  6. All in all, deriving इष्टिः from यजँ+क्तिन् has been obtained by taking cognizance of as many as 13 सूत्र-s, viz. 1’3’2, 1’3’9, 3’3’94, 1’3’8, 1’3’9, 3’3’19, 3’3’18, 6’1’15, 6’1’13, 8’2’36, 8’2’26, 8’4’41, 8’4’40
    1. The सूत्र-s which prove relevant in this instance are from chapters 1, 3, 6 and 8 (sections 2 and 4 of chapter 8).
    2. Obviously, one would take cognizance of all these सूत्र-s, only after knowing that there are as many सूत्र-s, which are relevant and necessary. That often amounts to knowing almost the whole of अष्टाध्यायी.
  7. One may wonder, “why not just understand the word from the dictionary and be done with it ?”
    1. In Apte’s dictionary इष्टिः is detailed as इष्टिः f. [इष्-क्तिन्] 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali’s additions to Kātyāyana’s Vārttikas; इष्टयो भाष्यकारस्य, इति भाष्यकारेष्टया &c.; cf. उपसंख्यान). -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 (यज्-क्तिन्) A sacrifice. Ms.11.2.2. शबर seems to interpret the word especially in the sense of ‘a दर्शपूर्णमास sacrifice’. इष्टिराजसूयचातुर्मास्येषु । &c. MS.II.2.12. -8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c. -9 Summary in verses (= संग्रहश्लोक). एभिर्यज्ञेभिस्तदभीष्टिमश्याम् Rv.1.166.14
    2. It may be noted that in Apte’s dictionary for the word इष्टिः, there are mentions of two derivations इष्-क्तिन् and also यज्-क्तिन्.

Certainly, there is great degree of self-satisfaction, on knowing every word as deeply as possible.

So, how much of अष्टाध्यायी one should know depends upon, what degree of self-satisfaction, one would be seeking and to what depth one would like to know every word.

शुभमस्तु !



विभक्तयः – Generally and in अष्टाध्यायी

The term विभक्ति is generally understood to be the process of obtaining पदानि after affixing सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s. But in अष्टाध्यायी the term विभक्ति has 2 different contexts and connotations.

  1. विभक्ति is the process of affixing both – (a) सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s and (b) affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s
  2. सुबन्त-s have some connotation in respect of composing the सूत्र-s, especially regarding अनुवृत्ति.

Maybe, it would be easier to understand this latter connotation by some example. Let us study the  following सूत्र-s

1’3’2 उपदेशेऽजननुनासिक इत् = उपदेशे (7-1) अच् (1-1) अनुनासिकः (1-1) इत् (1-1)

  • Note उपदेशे (7-1) means the word उपदेश is of 7th case and 1-वचनम्.
  • Here, one should also understand the meaning of उपदेश. As has been explained in the article “संज्ञक-s-or-इत्-s-of-पाणिनि” linked here, a धातु, सूत्रम्, गण, उणादि, वाक्य, लिङ्गानुशासनम्, आगम, प्रत्यय and आदेश, all these are उपदेश-s.
  • In all these, अनुनासिकः अच् is to be noted to be इत्.

1’3’3 हलन्त्यम् = हल् (1-1) अन्त्यम् (1-1)

  • Here there is no word in 7th case. Hence we can bring forward उपदेशे from the previous सूत्रम्. This process of bringing forward is called as अनुवृत्ति.
  • In the previous सूत्रम् there are three words having (1-1) as their विभक्ति-वचन analysis.  Of these अच् and अनुनासिकः are inter-related. The word इत् is stand-alone. So, that word can also be brought forward.
  • With those two अनुवृत्ति-s, this सूत्रम् should be now read as उपदेशे हलन्त्यम् इत्.
  • By this the overall meaning becomes, “consonant हल् at the end-position अन्त्यम् of an उपदेश is to be noted to be इत्.”

1’3’4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः = न (0) विभक्तौ (7-1) तुस्माः (1-3)

  • Here, because we have the word विभक्तौ in 7th case, we cannot have अनुवृत्ति of उपदेशे, which also is in the 7th case.
  • But we can have अनुवृत्ति-s of both हलन्त्यम् and इत्, both of them being of 1st case. Actually since तुस्माः are specific हल्-s and the सूत्रम् is speaking about these specific हल्-s, we may not have अनुवृत्ति of हल् as a whole. But having अनुवृत्ति of अन्त्यम् would still be logical. Since the अनुवृत्ति should have matching gender, case and number, we should modify them suitably. The सूत्रम् then should be read as न विभक्तौ अन्त्याः तुस्माः इतः, meaning, “तुस्माः, which are as endings of विभक्ति-s, would NOT be considered as इत्-s.”
  • This also means that in all other उपदेश-s, which are not विभक्ति-s, हलन्त्यम् stays valid as इत्.

From the above, it is clear that in अष्टाध्यायी the term विभक्ति has 2 different contexts, one as an उपदेश and another, as a consideration of अनुवृत्ति.

There is also a consideration about which विभक्ति is used in what sense, when composing सूत्र-s. For example षष्ठी the sixth case is used when composing सूत्र-s as conceptualized in षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा (1’1’49). The word स्थानेयोगा means substitution, replacement.

In सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६।१।७७) [इकः यण् अचि]

  • इकः (6-1) has षष्ठी of इक्. The इक्-s are “to be substituted” by यण्.
  • अचि (7-1) has सप्तमी of अच्. Here सप्तमी is used to connote “when followed by” (अच्).

The purpose of this write-up is to bring forth that विभक्ति-s of words have their general usages in Sanskrit sentences, such as कर्तृपदस्य प्रथमा, कर्मपदस्य द्वितीया, करणकारका तृतीया, सम्प्रदाने चतुर्थी, अपादाने पञ्चमी, अधिकरणे सप्तमी. But in understanding सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी, they have specific connotations, such षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा (“to be substituted by”), सप्तमी “when followed by”. The विभक्ति-s are significant also to understand अनुवृत्ति-s.

शुभमस्तु |




Why all धातु-s and प्रत्यय-s have “given” names ?

In Sanskrit grammar, in अष्टाध्यायी in particular, all धातु-s and प्रत्यय-s have “given” names, just as all new-born children are “given” names. The names given to धातु-s and प्रत्यय-s are coined, by using elements, which in अष्टाध्यायी are called as इत्-s. The इत्-s are coded / enlisted in 7 सूत्र-s from (1’3’2) to (1’3’8). One can think that इत्-s are somewhat like dress-codes. Dress-codes help to distinguish one from the other. For example धातु  कृ has forms in 5th class and also in 8th class. For धातु कृ in 5th class, its given name is कृञ्, whereas धातु कृ of 8th class has its given name डुकृञ्.

There is another grammatical concept in अष्टाध्यायी called as प्रक्रिया, the process(es). प्रक्रिया-s are like “make-up” of an actor for his role on the stage. In fact composing a sentence in Sanskrit is as good as conducting a play on the stage. Every word is an actor on the stage. Once the actor is given a proper “make-up”, he can move anywhere on the stage. That being the exact logic of “make-up” of every word, once the make-up is proper, the word can be anywhere in the sentence.
Elements of the make-up are many. To make up an actor for the role of रावण, he would have to have ten heads !
Make-up starts with undressing the usual dress of the actor. So forming a verb starts with undressing the इत्-s from the धातु. So from the name डुकृञ् both the इत्-s, डु and ञ् are taken away. So we have कृ ready for the make-up.
Now प्रत्यय-s can be considered to be elements of the make-up. Let us say, प्रत्यय-s are like caps. But the caps are also different to suit the role. For a Sikh it would be a turban, for a king it would be a crown, So the caps also have “names”. If the make-up artist has an assistant, he would ask the assistant by the particular name of the make-up element, so that the assistant would get the right cap. But the cap has to fit the particular actor. Also, the crown of the king will be different from that of the prince. So the crown would need preparation. The first step always would be to take away the “naming” elements, the इत्-s. For example there is a प्रत्यय – शतृ. In this name, there is श, which is its इत्. That has to be taken away, dropped. This प्रक्रिया of dropping the इत्-s is summarized in the diktat सूत्रम् – तस्य लोपः (1’3’9).
Isn’t this concept charming, that framing a Sanskrit sentence is like composing a one-act play, with proper make-up of every word, so that the word has a distinct identity, by which it can be distinguished, regardless of where it is in the sentence ?
This flexibility of syntax has made composing poetry in Sanskrit so much easier, that most of Sanskrit literature is in poetic style. Again, essence of poetic style is the rhythm. That makes it easy to commit them to memory. That is how so much of Sanskrit literature has survived over thousands of years, even after the huge library of Nalanda (or was it Takshashila ? or both ?) burnt down.
There has been an impression spread around that learning Sanskrit needs lot of mugging up. But if once the rhythm of it catches your fancy, you would not mind it. Rather, every सूत्रम्, every Mantra well understood and committed to memory will be your personal treasure. Let us all build up that treasure !