क्त्वा-प्रत्ययेन कृदन्तानि

In Sanskrit literature, one comes across many words formed by using this क्त्वा-प्रत्यय affixed to various धातु-s. Because this क्त्वा-प्रत्यय affixes to धातु-s, क्त्वा is basically a कृत्-प्रत्यय. Hence words formed by affixing क्त्वा to different धातु-s can be called as their क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s or simply क्त्वान्त-s.

सूत्रम् (1’1’40) क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः [bringing forward अव्ययम् from (1’1’37)] means “The words ending in the affixes क्त्वा, (तोसुन् and कसुन्), are अव्यय-s, indeclinables. (The तोसुँन्-प्रत्यय: and कसुँन्-प्रत्यय: are used only in the वेद-s”).

Most common use of क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s is clear from the meanings भूत्वा (= having been) कृत्वा (= having done) स्थित्वा (= having stood up) गत्वा (= having gone) नत्वा (= having bent OR having bowed) दृष्ट्वा (= having seen). In English grammar, the phrases such as “having seen”, contain the auxiliary “having” and the past passive participle “seen”. The क्त्वा-प्रत्यय serves both the functions, that of the auxiliary “having” and of the past passive participle.

In all such instances the subject is involved in two actions – one previous and another next. क्त्वा applies to the previous of the two actions. Importantly, the subject is common. Of course, this is summarized in सूत्रम् (3’4’21) – समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले meaning, “The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.

Note: द्वित्‍वमतन्‍त्रम् (द्वित्वम् अतन्त्रम्) The use of the dual number in समानकर्तृकयोः is non-consequential. It does not necessarily mean that the affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ applies only when there are exactly two actions. The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ can also be used when there are three or more actions – for example भुक्‍त्‍वा पीत्‍वा व्रजति meaning (he) goes after eating and drinking.

For some more information about क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s, it would be interesting to browse through the सूत्र-s, which have mention of क्त्वा. There are 5 such सूत्र-s obtaining from the अष्टाध्यायी word-index for क्त्वा (linked here).  

  1. सूत्रम् (1’2’22) पूङः क्त्वा च  specifies that for धातुः पूङ् “to purify”, the प्रत्यय क्त्वा affixes as क्त्वा only, i.e. without the drop=off of क्. Hence पू+क्त्वा = पूक्त्वा
  2. सूत्रम् (2’2’22) क्त्वा च  (with अनुवृत्ति-s of उपपद, तृतीयाप्रभृतीनि from previousसूत्र-s) specifies that one can affix क्त्वा to उपपद-words and to words with तृतीया and other cases, and that way compose compound words e.g. उच्चैःकृत्वा (in raised voice). Is it not interesting that, though क्त्वा is primarily a कृत्-प्रत्यय, it can be affixed to सुबन्त-s !
  3. सूत्रम् (3’4’18) अलङ्खल्वोः प्रतिषेधयोः प्राचां क्त्वा  specifies that one can use क्त्वान्त-s with अलम् and खलु for expressing the sense of prohibition. For example, अलं रुदित्वा (= enough with crying). रुदित्वा खलु (?) (= should be crying ? No, do not cry.)
  4. सूत्रम् – अव्ययेऽयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वाणमुलौ (3’4’59) (अव्यये अयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वा-णमुलौ) specifies that क्त्वा of धातुः कृ i.e. कृत्वा can be affixed to अव्यय-s to communicate something what is disagreeable or undesirable. For example नीचैःकृत्वा (speaking in low voice to one who is hard of hearing and likes to be spoken to in raised voice)
  5. सूत्रम् – क्त्वाऽपि छन्दसि (क्त्वा अपि छन्दसि) (7’1’38) specifies that in Vedic literature one finds use of क्त्वान्त-s in a manner, which does not conform to grammar of classical Sanskrit. e.g. In यजमानं परिधापयित्वा the composition of the word परिधापयित्वा should be, परिधाप्य as per grammar of classical Sanskrit (with ल्यप्-प्रत्यय instead of with क्त्वा-प्रत्यय, since there is उपसर्ग परि).
  6. One can form negative compounds also of क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s. For example गुरूनहत्वा (गुरून् अहत्वा) in गीता 2’5. Note अहत्वा means न हत्वा.

Do we have क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s for all धातु-s ? Basically to check whether any प्रत्यय may be affixed to all धातु-s, there are two सूत्र-s to take note of – (1) तिङ्-शित् सार्वधातुकम् (3’4’113) and (2) आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114).

Since क्त्वा is a कृत्-प्रत्यय, it is not a तिङ्-प्रत्यय. Also, its संज्ञा the name क्त्वा does not have any श् at its beginning. So, it is not a शित्. By both these considerations it does not qualify to be सार्वधातुक.

In turn क्त्वा qualifies to be considered an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय as per आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114). So, are there any धातु-s to which क्त्वा would not be affixed ? That would be a point to investigate.

Another aspect of this study should be to know the प्रक्रिया-s, by which क्त्वा affixes to different धातु-s.

Before that, it should be noted that the name क्त्वा has in its name, rather, in the beginning of it, क् as an इत्. This क् is an इत् as per लशक्वतद्धिते (1’3’8) and merits to be dropped off as per तस्य लोपः (1’3’9). So, practically क्त्वा would affix only as त्वा. A name having क् as an इत् would be called as किदन्वित (कित्-अन्वित) or as “a संज्ञा with कित् in it”. There are many such कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, which have कित्-संज्ञा-s, e.g. क्त, क्तवतु, क्तिन्, etc. Presently this study focuses on क्त्वा. Maybe, much of this study will come handy, when studying the others also.

It would be good  to identify some commonly known क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s by their formation styles =>

  1. It has been mentioned above that as per (1’2’22) for धातुः पू(ङ्) “to purify”, the प्रत्यय क्त्वा affixes as क्त्वा only, i.e. without the drop=off of क्. Hence पू+क्त्वा = पूक्त्वा. The सूत्रम् (1’2’22) is exclusively for धातुः पू.
    1. Meaning of धातुः पू as detailed in Apte’s dictionary is <पू 1, 4 Ā., 9 U. (पवते, पूयते, पुनाति, पुनीते, पूत; caus. पावयति; desid. पुपूषति, पिपविषते) 1 To make pure, cleanse, purify (lit. and fig.); अवश्यपाव्यं पवसे Bk.6.64; 3.18; पुण्याश्रमदर्शनेन तावदात्मानं पुनीमहे Ś.1; Ms.1.15;2. 62; Y.1.58; R.1.53; पवनः पवतामस्मि Bg.1.31. -2 To refine. -3 To clean from chaff, winnow; पूत्वा तृण- मिषीकां वा ते लभन्ते न किञ्चन Mb.12.237.4. -4 To expiate, atone for; दुर्मित्रासो हि क्षितयः पवन्ते Rv.7.28.4. -5 To discern, discriminate. -6 To think out, devise, invent. -7 To become clear or pure (Ātm.).>
  2. भू =>भूत्वा, कृ => कृत्वा, which seem to be straightforward with no प्रक्रिया involved, rather, with no change involved. See note below on this formation style #2
  3. पठ् => पठित्वा Note, धातु-s, which are inherently सेट् (स-इट् = with इट्), i.e. those, which admit or invite आगम of इ, will have आगम of इ before affixing त्वा. Hence पठ्+इ = पठि then पठि+त्वा => पठित्वा
    1. For धातु क्लिश् (= to suffer, to cause trouble) affixing त्वा happens with or without इडागम (आगम of इ) as per सूत्रम् (7’2’50) – क्लिशः क्त्वानिष्ठयोः (This सूत्रम् takes अनुवृत्ति-s of वा and इडागमः) Hence क्लिश्+त्वा => क्लिष्ट्वा or क्लिशित्वा
  4. गम् => गत्वा, नम् => नत्वा. Here म् has become lost (has suffered a लोपः). See note below on this formation style #4
  5. भिद् => भित्त्वा, छिद् => छित्त्वा Note, here द् has changed to त्
  6. मुच् / मुञ्च् => मुक्त्वा, भुज् / भुञ्ज् => भुक्त्वा Here च् and ज् have changed to क् and the nasal ञ् has become dropped off.
  7. दृश् => दृष्ट्वा i.e. श् changed to ष् and त्वा changed to ट्वा, rather त् changed to ट्. See also क्लिष्ट्वा at (3-a) above.  
  8. स्था => स्थित्वा Here आ has become (has changed to, has suffered an आदेश as) इ
  9. वस् => उषित्वा Here वस् has changed to उष् and an extra इ has come in (there is आगम of इ). In वस् changing to उष्, there are actually two changes – (a) व् has changed to उ (b) स् has changed to ष्. Change (a) is सम्प्रसारणम् as specified in सूत्रम् – इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम् (1’1’45)

For understanding formation style #2, as of भू =>भूत्वा, कृ => कृत्वा, there is an interesting सूत्रम् – न क्त्वा सेट् (1’2’18)

  • In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (3322) this सूत्रम् is detailed as सेट् (स-इट्) क्त्वा किन्न (कित् न) स्यात् । शयित्वा । सेट् किम् । कृत्वा
  • It would be good to paraphrase this as न क्त्वा (if) सेट्, (but) कित्,
  • meaning,  क्त्वा which is सेट् (स-इट् = with इट्), which admits or invites आगम of इ, shall not be क्त्वा, but it will be कित्, i.e. with क् dropped, i.e. only त्वा as in शयित्वा, कृत्वा.

Formation style #3 has been already detailed above only.

In respect of formation style #4 of गम् => गत्वा, नम् => नत्वा, where म् has become lost (has suffered a लोपः), there is

  1. सूत्रम् (6’4’37) अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति
  2. अनुदात्त-उपदेश-वनति-तनोति-आदीनाम् अनुनासिकलोपः झलि क्ङिति
  3. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (2428) this is detailed as अनुनासिक-इति लुप्तषष्ठीकं वनतीतरेषां विशेषणम् । अनुनासिकान्तानामेषां वनतेश्च लोपः स्याज्झलादौ क्ङिति परे । यमिरमिनमिगमिहनिमन्यतयोऽनुदात्तोपदेशाः । तनुक्षणुक्षिणुऋणुतृणुघृणुवनुमनुतोनोत्यादयः । हतः । घ्नन्ति ॥
  4. From the details in English translation of Ashtadhyayi by Shrish Chandra Vasu, one gets to understand that “When affixing a कित्-प्रत्यय, the final nasal अनुनासिक of धातु-s is elided, is dropped off, if the अनुनासिक is preceded by अनुदात्त vowel. For example म्+क्त्वा => ग(म्)त्वा => त्वा. Note, the vowel अ in is अनुदात्त. Hence it is marked with underscore.

So, क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s for different धातु-s would be obtained by different प्रक्रिया-s.

Basically however obtaining क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s is प्रक्रिया of धातु+त्वा. Of course, धातु-s are either vowel-ending or consonant-ending. So, forming क्त्वा-कृदन्त-s should be प्रक्रिया-s of vowel+consonant (अच्+हल् = अज्झल्-प्रक्रिया-s or consonant+consonant (हल् followed by हल् i.e. हल् हलि)-प्रक्रिया-s. By such token, the applicable rules should be संधि-नियम-s or  संधि-सूत्र-s only. As is obvious, consonant+consonant (हल् followed by हल् i.e. हल्-हलि)-प्रक्रिया-s should be as per संधि-सूत्र-s for व्यञ्जनसंधि-s.

But it should be also noted, that for धातु-s, one takes note of, not just the ending वर्ण, but also of the penultimate वर्ण called as उपधवर्ण, because the उपधवर्ण also has an influence in the प्रक्रिया.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

Meta-rules about use of विभक्ति-s

What comes to mind as a good example to understand use of विभक्ति-s is the सूत्रम् – ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् (8’3’32) Let us proceed to study this सूत्रम् by the ordained method. 

So, first पदच्छेद-s => ङमः ह्रस्वात् अचि ङमुट् नित्यम् 

Next, let us identify the प्रातिपदिक-s and accordingly, their विभक्ति-वचन-analysis. 

ङमः (ङम् 6’1) ह्रस्वात् (ह्रस्व 5’1) अचि (अच् 7’1) ङमुट् (ङम्-उट् 1’1) नित्यम् (0’0)

  1. The प्रातिपदिक ङम् is a प्रत्याहार covering the अनुनासिक-s ङ् ण् न् Here, since ङमः is (ङम् 6’1), the sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति used here denotes what has to become “of ङम्”
  2. Next, since ह्रस्वात् is (ह्रस्व 5’1), the fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति connotes “when preceded by”. Here, when preceded by ह्रस्व. Since ह्रस्व is a characteristics of vowels, ह्रस्वात् means “when preceded by अ इ उ ऋ or लृ”
  3.  Next, in अचि (अच् 7’1) the प्रातिपदिक अच् is a प्रत्याहार covering all vowels. The seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति here connotes “when followed by”. So here अचि means “when followed by any vowel”.
  4. Next, we have ङमुट्, which is a compound word made up the components ङम् and उट्. Of these ङम्, as noted above, is a प्रत्याहार covering the अनुनासिक-s ङ् ण् न्. The second component उट् is a terminology used in अष्टाध्यायी for an आगम.  So, ङमुट् (ङम्-उट्) means ङम् come in as उट्, i.e there will be आगम of ङम्. 
  5. नित्यम् means always. 

Putting together the five ‘meaning’-statements we get overall meaning of the सूत्रम् as (1) of ङम् (2) when preceded by अ इ उ ऋ or लृ (3) when followed by any vowel (4) there will be आगम of ङम् (5) always. 

The सूत्रम् has been explained exactly like this and with examples by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. See Para 134 – ह्रस्वात्परो यो ङम् तदन्तं यत्पदं तस्मात्परस्याऽचो नित्यं ङमुडागमः स्यात् । प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा (प्रत्यङ् + आत्मा। सुगण्णीशः । सन्नच्युतः ॥

  • Note प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा is प्रत्यङ् + आत्मा Here ङ् is preceded by अ and is followed by आ. 
  • सुगण्णीशः is सुगण् + ईशः. Here, ण् is preceded by अ and is followed by ई.
  • सन्नच्युतः is सन् + अच्युतः. Here न् is preceded by अ and is followed by अ. Also in गीता 3’36 there is अनिच्छन्नपि (अनिच्छन्+अपि) न् is preceded by अ and is followed by अ.
  • In ईशावास्योपनिषत् at the beginning of second मन्त्र is the word कुर्वन्नेवेह (कुर्वन् एव इह). Note कुर्वन् + एव = कुर्वन्नेव. Here न् is preceded by अ and is followed by ए. 
  • For a counter example तान् + अहम् (गीता 16’19) does NOT become तान्नहम् because here न् is preceded by आ, which is not ह्रस्व. तान् + अहम् is simply तानहम्. Also पितॄन् + अथ becomes पितॄनथ (see गीता 1’26), because न् is preceded by ॠ which is दीर्घ. 
  • अस्मिन् + उद्यमे should be अस्मिन्नुद्यमे because न् is preceded by इ and is followed by उ. 

Are the meanings (fifth case = when preceded by), (sixth case = of), (seventh case = when followed by) so stated in अष्टाध्यायी ? 

Yes, in respect of fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य<1-1-67> which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 41 as पञ्चमीनिर्देशेन क्रियमाणं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य परस्य ज्ञेयम् ॥  

In respect of sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा <1-1-49> which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 38 as अनिर्धारितसम्बन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या । स्थानं च प्रसङ्गः ॥ This is translated into English at <http://panini.phil.hhu.de/panini/panini/browse/> as “The force of the genitive case in a sûtra is that of the phrase “in the place of” when no special rules qualify the sense of the genitive.”

In respect of seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति there is सूत्रम् – तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य (1’1’66) which is detailed by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी in Para # 40 as सप्तमीनिर्देशेन विधीयमानं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य पूर्वस्य बोध्यम् ॥ This is translated into English at <http://panini.phil.hhu.de/panini/panini/browse/> as “When a term is exhibited in the seventh case in these sûtras, the operation directed, is to be understood as affecting the state of what immediately precedes that which the term denotes.”

Mentioned above are the main सूत्र-s for पञ्चमी षष्ठी and सप्तमी विभक्ति-s. But they are not all. Nevertheless they contain the essential concepts about विभक्ति-s of different words in a सूत्रम्. 

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-