On-going study of उपनिषद्-s among my circle of friends prompts this study of लेट्-लकार.

As is well-known, तिङन्त-s of धातु-s are conjugated in 10 लकार-s. This is summarized in the verse =>

लट् वर्तमाने लेट् वेदे भूते लुङ्-लङ्-लिटस्तथा |

विध्याशिषौ लिङ्-लोटौ लुट्-लृट्-लृङ् च भविष्यति ||

The mention लेट् वेदे in the verse makes one curious to know what this लेट्-लकार is – is it a tense (past, present, future) or a mood (imperative, potential, benedictine, ..) ?

Is it discussed in अष्टाध्यायी ? Well, yes, there is सूत्रम् – लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) Obviously, since लिङ्-लकार is a लकार of mood, लेट्-लकार is also a लकार of mood. This सूत्रम् is discussed in Para 3424 in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी under the chapter #67 वैदिकी प्रक्रिया.

Dr. Pushpa Dikshit has discussed this लेट्-लकार in her YouTube व्याख्यानम् at <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lVPBTJboREE> from 4:09 minutes onward. In the portion prior to this point, she challenges the concept of सिद्धान्तकौमुदी discussing this लेट्-लकार in chapter #67 वैदिकी प्रक्रिया. She contends that one does not find in अष्टाध्यायी any such प्रक्रिया-s, which can be or should be called as वैदिकी प्रक्रिया-s, i.e. प्रक्रिया-s, which apply only to words in वैदिक texts.  Since her व्याख्यानम् is very valuable to understand लेट्-लकार in particular, I am trying to compile notes based on, what I can comprehend from her impeccable Sanskrit speech.

Importantly, she contends that लेट्-लकार is itself of two types सार्वधातुक and आर्धधातुक. The सूत्रम् – सिब्बहुलं लेटि (3’4’34) specifies that one finds in लेट्-लकार, extensive use of the suffix सिप्. This suffix सिप्, she contends, is itself आर्धधातुक, maybe, because, being one out of the first nine तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s [see सूत्रम् 3’4’78 – (तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्मिप्वस्मस्)-(आताम्थास्आथाम्ध्वम्इड्वहिमहिङ्)] > सिप्-प्रत्यय applies only to परस्मैपदी धातु-s.

She makes an interesting proposition, that with two types of लिङ्-लकार-s and two types of लेट्-लकार-s, total number of लकार-s be considered to be twelve. Among the ten लकार-s used in लौकिक संस्कृत, only 4 लकार-s, लट्-लोट्-लङ्-(विधि)लिङ् are सार्वधातुक. One may add as fifth सार्वधातुक लकार, the सिब्लेट्, i.e. that लेट्, when the तिङ्-प्रत्यय is not सिप्. Accordingly, rest 7 लकार-s लिट्-लुट्-लृट्-सिब्लेट्-(आशीर्)लिङ्-लुङ्-लृङ् become आर्धधातुक लकार-s. 

But this contention to consider सिब्लेट् as आर्धधातुक seems to be open to argument. Actually, the thought of classifying लकार-s into classes as सार्वधातुक and आर्धधातुक, itself seems to be questionable, because all लकार-s take तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s and all तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s are सार्वधातुक, as per तिङ्-शित् सार्वधातुकम् (3’4’113). 

Anyway, the next point of curiosity certainly is to know for what sense, as tense or as mood does one find use of लेट्-लकार in वैदिक texts. Of course लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) and उपसंवादाशङ्कयोश्च (3’4’8) clarify that. From लिङर्थे लेट् (3’4’7) one can deduce that, in whichever sense लिङ्-लकार is used in लौकिक संस्कृत, in all those senses, one may find use of लेट्-लकार in वैदिक texts. The senses in which लिङ्-लकार is used in लौकिक संस्कृत are many. Just to quote a few =>

  1. 3’3’134 आशंसावचने लिङ्
  2. 3’3’143 विभाषा कथमि लिङ् च
  3. 3’3’144 किंवृत्ते लिङ्लृटौ
  4. 3’3’147 जातुयदोर्लिङ्
  5. 3’3’152 उताप्योः समर्थयोर्लिङ्
  6. 3’3’156 हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ्
  7. 3’3’157 इच्छार्थेषु लिङ्लोटौ
  8. 3’3’158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् + 3’3’159 लिङ् च
  9. 3’3’161 विधिनिमन्‍त्रणामन्‍त्रणाधीष्‍टसंप्रश्‍नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्
  10. 3’3’167 कालसमयवेलासु तुमुन् + 3’3’168 लिङ् यदि
  11. 3’3’172 शकि लिङ् च
  12. 3’3’173 आशिषि लिङ्लोटौ

Further next point would be to understand the प्रक्रिया-s which dictate conjugations, i.e. obtaining तिङन्त-s in लेट्-लकार for different धातु-s. As is the case of any लकार, in लेट्-लकार also there would be 9 तिङन्त-s in परस्मैपदम् and 9 तिङन्त-s in आत्मनेपदम्. The conjugation प्रक्रिया-s are dictated by सूत्र-s –

  1. लेटोऽडाटौ (3’4’94) – लेटः अट्-आटौ meaning, there would be अट् (अ) and आट् (आ) आगम-s in लेट् Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – तारिषत् (ऋ. 1’25’12) मन्दिषत् | पताति दिद्युत् (ऋ. 7’25’1) उदधिं च्यावयाति (तै. सं. 3’5’5’2)
  2. आत ऐ (3’4’95) – आत् (आ) would suffer आदेश as ऐ Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – मन्त्रयैते, मन्त्रयैथे, करवैते करवैथे
  3. वैतोऽन्यत्र (3’4’96) – Or एत् (ए) will suffer आदेश at other instances – Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – अते=>अतै, अन्ते=>अन्तै, असे=>असै, अध्वे=>अध्वै | “सप्ताहानि शासै | अहमेव पशूनामीशै (काठ. सं. 25’1)
  4. इतश्च लोपः परस्मैपदेषु (3’4’97) – In परस्मैपद-conjugations there would be deletion of इ-s. Note, here इत् means इ only and not what इत्-s are detailed in सूत्र-s (13’2) to (1’3’8). So the इ-s in परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय-s तिझिसिमि will suffer deletion. Dr. Pushpa Dixit explains this by the examples – अति=>अत् अन्ति=> अन् असि=>अस् (अः) अमि=> अम् 
  5. स उत्तमस्य (3’4’98) – From प्रत्यय-s वस्मस् of उत्तमपुरुष their स्-endings will get deleted. 

May I stop here as a preliminary study or brief overview of लेट्-लकार.

शुभमस्तु |



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