On Tuesday Dec. 19, 2017 Dr. Malhar Kulkarni discussed this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27.
This is a संज्ञासूत्रम् related to सर्वनामानि Pronouns. सर्वनाम is the संज्ञा.
There are pronouns in every language. Since it is a grammatical terminology, there would be a definition, which would explain, what a pronoun is. One definition, I get is, “… a pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase, which once replaced, is known as the pronoun’s antecedent.” I am not convinced that every pronoun has an antecedent. Pronouns of first and second person would not have to have antecedents. Only pronouns of third person would have antecedents.
What is the definition of सर्वनामानि in Sanskrit grammar ?
The word सर्वनामानि is a compound word. Deciphering this compound word would explain the concept behind सर्वनामानि and would in turn be its definition. One pattern of deciphering would be सर्वेभ्यः नामानि इति सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः) Hence सर्वनामानि are such nouns,
- which can be applicable to all सर्वेभ्यः
- also, which can be usable by all i.e. सर्वैः प्रयोक्तव्यानि This aspect is mentioned in त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72)
So, whereas this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27 introduces the संज्ञा सर्वनाम, more of its ramifications have to be understood from other सूत्र-s, such as शि सर्वनामस्थानम् (1’1’42) त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).
This pattern of discussion of this सूत्रम् brings newer thoughts and newer dimensions to “How to study अष्टाध्यायीसूत्राणि ?”. Earlier on 3rd January 2016, I had attended a session by Dr. Nilesh Joshi. And I had compiled a note on a sequential procedure to study सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.
(1) सूत्रम् → (2) पदच्छेदाः → (3) पदानां विभक्तिवचनविश्लेषणम् → (4) सूत्रवृत्तिः → (5) सूत्रार्थः → (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः |
In respect of Step (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः I had noted that commentaries on सूत्र-s can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/ashtadhyayi/vyakhya/1/1.1.1.htm
This link is a useful tool to read commentaries on any सूत्रम्. One needs to only edit the सूत्र-number in the file address.
But, for one’s own study of any सूत्र, one can and should make one’s own notes, observations and questions.
I had some review of this Methodology, occasioned by a query in April, 2016 by Mr. Kristan Stratos at firstname.lastname@example.org. That was a good opportunity for me to review/summarize the methodology for Study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी. I detailed it as follows –
For understanding any सूत्रम्, one should follow a sequence –
- Write down the सूत्रम् as given → सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
- Do पदच्छेद – सर्व-आदीनि सर्व-नामानि
- Decipher compound words –
- सर्व आदौ येषांस्तानि सर्वादीनि (बहुव्रीहिः)
- सर्वेभ्यः नामानि सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)
- Do विभक्ति-वचन case-number analysis of all पद-s – सर्वादीनि (1’3) सर्वनामानि (1’3)
- Bring forth any such word(s) or phrase(s) from previous सूत्र (or सूत्र-s), which would be essential for proper interpretation of the given सूत्र. This step called as अनुवृत्ति may be or may not be required or applicable. For this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि no अनुवृत्ति seems necessary.
- Paraphrase the सूत्रम् i.e. put it in a proper syntax i.e. write the अन्वय so that the paraphrasing brings forth the meaning. Such paraphrasing is called as वृत्ति. One may do this not necessarily in संस्कृत. Concept of वृत्ति is to bring forth the interpretation. So it can be done in any language.
Since this सूत्रम् has just two words, both in subject case, paraphrasing of the सूत्रम् is simple – just add the verb and complete the sentence → सर्वादीनि (All those starting with सर्व) are सर्वनामानि (are such type of nouns, which can be used by all, are, what are called as Pronouns in English.)
- To reinforce the interpretation, one may compile examples. Actually, for this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि, one needs not compile the examples afresh. All सर्वनामानि are already compiled in one place in गणपाठ, which is sort of an Annexure of अष्टाध्यायी. Actually if any सूत्रम् has the word आदि in it, this word आदि is a code-word in अष्टाध्यायी, suggesting that there are many more. All those “many more” are then detailed in गणपाठ. All सर्वनामानि are in सर्वादि-गण in गणपाठ. Note, गण means a collection. सर्वादि-गण means collection of all those, starting with सर्व, i.e. collection of all सर्वनामानि.
- Interestingly, in सर्वादि-गण there are as many as 35 सर्वनामानि listed in five sub-groups. Does any other language have so many pronouns ?
- सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, डतर, डतम, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, त्वत्, त्व, नेम, सम, सिम (sub-group of 14)
- पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् This subgroup is a सूत्रम् by itself. A सूत्रम्, which is an integral part of a गण in गणपाठ is called as गणसूत्रम्.
- Listed here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर (sub-group of 7)
- But it is specified here that these words would be pronouns only when व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम्.
- स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun स्व. But it is specified here that स्व would be a pronoun only when it is अज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम्
- अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun अन्तर. But it is specified here that अन्तर would be a pronoun only when it is बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः
- त्यद्-तद्-यद्-एतद्-इदम्-अदस्-एक-द्वि-युष्मद्-अस्मद्-भवत्-किम् (sub-group of 12). Actually this subgroup details the त्यद्-गण suggested by the सूत्रम् – त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).
- The गणसूत्र-s of subgroups #2, 3 and 4 cannot be studied in the same methodology as of studying a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी, because in गणपाठ we do not have any associated सूत्र(s), required for a comprehensive study. But these 3 सूत्र-s are quoted not only in गणपाठ in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, they are also in अष्टाध्यायी by their specific numbers
- पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् 1’1’34
- स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् 1’1’35
- अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः 1’1’36
The सूत्रम् what we are studying is सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27. So there are 9 more सूत्र-s in-between. So, all 10 सूत्र-s from 1’1’27 to 1’1’36 ought to be interrelated. Let me list them all.
1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (सि.कौ. 213)
1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 292)
1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 222)
1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सि.कौ. 223)
1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सि.कौ. 224)
1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सि.कौ. 225)
1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सि.कौ. 226)
1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सि.कौ. 218)
1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सि.कौ. 219)
1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सि.कौ. 220)
In the above listing, what are given in parentheses are serial numbers of paras in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, in which the different सूत्र-s are discussed. All the Paras # 213 to 226 are in अजन्तपुँल्लिङ्गप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. Para # 292 is in अजन्तस्त्रीलिङ्गप्रकरणम्. Also the serial order of the para numbers in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is different from their numbers in अष्टाध्यायी.
In महाभाष्यम् all these सूत्र-s are discussed in the sixth आह्निकम् and in the sequence as per अष्टाध्यायी.
Common theme or topic of all these 10 सूत्र-s is सर्वनामानि. Having started the study of only one सूत्र, it now transpires that we have to study 10 सूत्र-s. But study of the one सूत्र, with which we started, will become an incomplete study, if we do not study all the ten. This – to study related सूत्र-s together – seems to be one good modification in the method of studying अष्टाध्यायी.
Actually for the study to be as much complete a study as possible, it comes to mind that one should study all other सूत्र-s, which deal with some aspect or the other of all the सर्वनामानि.
On this count Dr. Malhar Kulkarni did discuss that there are three important aspects about सर्वनामानि, which merit a study. These are
- Word-forms of सर्वनामानि are different in case of चतुर्थी-पञ्चमी-सप्तमी-एकवचनम् and प्रथमा-षष्ठी बहुवचनम्
- पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् (5’3’7) and सप्तम्यास्त्रल् (5’3’10)
- अव्ययसर्वनाम्नामकच् प्राक् टेः (5’3’71)
The pronouns युष्मद् and अस्मद् are unique that their word-forms are common in all genders. To be able to locate, compile and study the सूत्र-s related to everyone of the 35-odd pronouns, a Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी would be very good. I posted a query inquiring whether any such Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी has already been compiled. Dr. H. N. Bhat very kindly gave a link to पाणिनीयसूत्रपाठस्य तत्परिशिष्टग्रन्थानां च शब्दकोशाः compiled by पाठक-चित्राव-शास्त्रिणौ way back in 1935. It is mentioned in the preface that they labored on it over 12 years !
There is so much to study ! Let us proceed.
In 1’1’28 and 1’1’32 there is the word विभाषा. In अष्टाध्यायी this word is used in a specific sense, as mentioned in न वेति विभाषा (1’1’44), i.e. “maybe or may not be”. This should help in interpreting these two सूत्र-s.
First of all, we should put in appropriate अनुवृत्ति-s in all these सूत्र-s. This way, we can make some cursory study of all the 10 सूत्र-s.
- 1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
- 1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = if (i) a pronoun-word is in a compound word and (ii) the compound word is speaking of a direction and (iii) if the compounding is of बहुव्रीहि-type, then the pronoun word may or may not merit treatment as a pronoun
- 1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = If any of the सर्वनामानि is part of a compound word, (excepting one speaking of a direction) such compound word would not be a सर्वनाम. A बहुव्रीहि-compound word is eminently adjectival. For example
- 1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि न) =
- 1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सर्वनामानि न)
- 1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सर्वनामानि)
- 1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are प्रथम, चरम, तय, अल्प, अर्ध, कतिपय, नेम. It seems that सर्वादिगण has missed out प्रथम, चरम, तय, अल्प, अर्ध, कतिपय.
- 1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर. But these would be pronouns only when they have the context of व्यवस्था and are not nouns.
- 1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सर्वनाम) = स्व would be a pronoun only if it has no context of ज्ञाति, धन, आख्या.
- 1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सर्वनाम) = अन्तर would be a pronoun only if it has a context of बहिर्योग and उपसंव्यान.
Since there are pronouns in every language, it should be interesting to make a comparative study of pronouns in English and in Sanskrit.
In English pronouns are of 10 types –
- Personal Pronouns ⇒ Are subjective (he, she, it, I, we, you, they) and objective (him, her, it, me, us, you, them). Note, objective pronouns are only the द्वितीया (/चतुर्थी) विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
- Interrogative Pronouns ⇒ (who, what, which, whom whose) In Sanskrit these are forms of किम्.
- Indefinite Pronouns ⇒ (all, anyone, both, each, anything, everybody, many, no one, some, someone, few, etc)
- It seems that at least the word बहु from बहुगणवतुडति सङ्ख्या in सूत्रम् 1’1’22 actually qualify to be an indefinite pronoun.
- Also suffixes चित् and चन make the indefinite pronouns when affixed to forms of किम् e.g. कश्चित्, किञ्चित्, काचित्, कश्चन, किञ्चन, काचन.
- Relative Pronouns ⇒ E.g. “Is this, what I get ?” Here, “this” and “what” are related, “what” being in the subordinate clause. More impressive example is यः पश्यति स पश्यति (गीता 13’27) He, who sees, sees OR One, who sees, sees.
- Possessive Pronouns ⇒(His, hers, its, mine, ours, yours, theirs) In Sanskrit these are by षष्ठी विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
- Reflexive Pronouns ⇒ (Himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves). In Sanskrit the function of the suffix “self” is served by adjectival usage of स्व, e.g. I saw it myself मया स्वेन दृष्टम् or one uses स्वयम् adverbially e.g. स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् (गीता 10’15) i.e. त्वम् आत्मानम् आत्मना स्वयमेव वेत्थ You त्वम् know वेत्थ thyself आत्मानम् by thyself आत्मना automatically (by virtue of your intrinsic faculty) स्वयमेव.
- Intensive Pronouns ⇒ e.g. “You yourself must come.” Note, “you” is a personal pronoun, “yourself” is a reflexive pronoun. Both together becomes intensive pronoun. Above example of स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् is a classic example of very forceful combination of reflexivity and intensity.
- Demonstrative Pronouns ⇒ (this, that, these, those, none, neither, such)
- Reciprocal Pronouns ⇒ (Each other, each other’s, one another, one another’s)
- Distributive Pronouns ⇒ (Each, either, neither)
For this study of pronouns to be comprehensive and complete, one needs to be find which pronoun is detailed in which other सूत्र-s and note the significance of every such detail.
It comes to mind that study up to here may be taken as Part 1 of the study of this subject of सर्वनामानि Pronouns in Sanskrit.