वैयाकरणभूषणसार – Preface

वैयाकरणभूषणसारे उपोद्घातः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकायाम् प्रतिज्ञा च |

वैयाकरणभूषणसार is commentary by कौण्डभट्ट on वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका by भट्टोजीदीक्षित.

Although वैयाकरणभूषणसार is a prose commentary, the author कौण्डभट्ट has composed उपोद्घात the preface in 5 metrical stanzas.

In the third stanza of उपोद्घात, कौण्डभट्ट makes reference to भट्टोजीदीक्षित whom he mentions to be his पितृव्य fore-father. श्लोक-s 1 to 4 are in अनुष्टुभ्-छन्दः, whereas the last one is in शार्दूलविक्रीडितम्.

I shall attempt English interpretation of these 5 stanzas. First, the word उपोद्घातः itself.

उपोद्घातः –

  • उपोद्घातः उप + उत् + घातः
    • घातः [हन्-णिच् घञ्] 1 A blow, stroke, bruise, hit
    • उद्घातः – 1 P.VII.3.54. Beginning, commencement; उद्घातः प्रणवो यासाम् Ku.2.12
      • P.VII.3.54 denotes सूत्रम् – हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु
      • Literally or by its etymology उद्घातः seems to mean ‘blowing up’
      • ‘blowing up’ is like blowing a trumpet, which is announcement of the beginning of an activity, e.g. a war
      • ‘blowing up’ is also similar to day-break, which is also beginning of the day.
    • Since उपोद्घातः is उप + उद्घातः something similar to उद्घातः
    • In Apte’s dictionary उपोद्घातः – 1 A beginning, commencement. -2 An introduction, a preface

Prefaces in Sanskrit-works start with obeisances. It is not to be expected that there will be grammatical detailing or explanation of the meanings. But because I want to put it all in English, I have attempted grammatical detailing and explanation of the meanings as स्वाध्यायः my own self-study. E. & O. E. !

श्रीलक्ष्मीरमणं नौमि गौरीरमणरूपिणम् |

स्फोटरूपं यतः सर्वं जगदेतद्विवर्तते ||1||

श्रीलक्ष्मीरमणं नौमि गौरीरमणरूपिणम् | स्फोटरूपं यतः सर्वं जगत् एतत् विवर्तते ||1|| – I bow to श्रीलक्ष्मीरमण who is also seen as गौरीरमण and from whom all this world has emerged स्फोटरूपम् as if by a bang.

अशेषफलदातारं भवाब्धितरणे तरिम् |

शेषाशेषार्थलाभार्थं प्रार्थये शेषभूषणम् ||2||

To Him, who is शेषभूषण adorned by the शेष, who is तरि the boat भवाब्धितरणे to transcend this ocean of life, who is अशेषफलदातार who bestows fruits uninhibited, प्रार्थये I pray for लाभार्थं giving proper meaning to शेषाशेषार्थ all acts (even) of शेष omission and अशेष commission. What a wonderful deployment of the words शेष and अशेष !

वाग्देवी यस्य जिह्वाग्रे नरीनर्ति सदा मुदा |

भट्टोजीदीक्षितमहं पितृव्यं नौमि सिद्धये ||3||

For सिद्धये fulfilment of task on hand, अहं I (also) नौमि bow to पितृव्य my fore-father भट्टोजीदीक्षित, who has had मुदा merrily नरीनर्ति dancing again and again सदा always जिह्वाग्रे on the tip of his tongue, वाग्देवी the goddess of speech,

नत्वा गणेशपादाब्जं गुरूनथ सरस्वतीम् |

श्रीकौण्डभट्टः कुर्वेऽहं वैयाकरणभूषणम् ||4||

अहं, I कौण्डभट्ट also नत्वा bow at पादाब्ज the lotus feet of गणेश, गुरून् unto my precepts अथ and unto Goddess सरस्वती and कुर्वे proceed to compose this वैयाकरणभूषणम्.

पाणिन्यादिमुनीन्प्रणम्य पितरं रंगोजिभट्टाभिधम् |

द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकां पुंभाववाग्देवतान् ||

ढण्ढिं गौतमजैमिनीयवचनव्याख्यातृभिर्दूषितान् |

सिद्धान्ताननुपत्तिभिः प्रकटये तेषां वचो दूषये ||5||

I प्रणम्य salute पाणिनि-आदि and other मुनि -s and पितरं my father अभिध known as रंगोजिभट्ट

(1) द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकाम् – ध्वंस्

  • (1-1) द्वैतध्वान्त –
    • द्वैतम् [द्विधा इतं द्वितं तस्य भावः स्वार्थे अण्] 1 Duality. -2 Dualism in philosophy, the assertion of two distinct principles, such as the maintenance of the doctrine that, spirit and matter, Brahman and the Universe, or the Individual and the Supreme Soul, are different from each other; cf. अद्वैत; किं शास्त्रं श्रवणेन यस्य गलति द्वैतान्ध- कारोत्करः Bv.1.86. -3 N. of a forest.
    • ध्वान्तम् Darkness
    • द्वैतध्वान्त = darkness of duality
  • (1-2) निवारणादिफलिकाम् –
    • निवारः निवारणम् 1 Keeping off, preventing, warding off; दंशनिवारणैश्च R.2.5. -2 Prohibition, impediment.
    • फलम् [फल्-अच्] A result, fruit, consequence, effect
  • (1-3) द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकाम् (प्रणम्य) = (I bow) to/unto her, who would bestow the fruit of keeping off the darkness of duality &c.

(2) पुंभाववाग्देवतान् (प्रणम्य) –

  • पुंसः भावः इति पुंभावः = masculine aptitude
  • वाचः देवता इति वाग्देवता = deity of speech
  • पुंभाववाग्देवतान् (प्रणम्य) = I bow unto the deities of speech of masculine aptitude
  • I don’t think, I have understood what कौण्डभट्ट had in mind in making mention of such deities.

(3) ढण्ढिं – No explanation found in Apte’s dictionary for this word

(4) गौतमजैमिनीयवचनव्याख्यातृभिः – By व्याख्याता-s i.e. by those, who explained वचन-s statements of गौतमजैमिनीय i.e. of गौतम and जैमिनीय

(5) दूषितान् – दूषित a. [दुष्-णिच्-क्त] 1 Corrupted. defiled, spoiled.

  • दुष् 4 P. (दुष्यति, दुष्ट) 1 To be bad or corrupted, be spoiled or suffer damage. -2 To be defiled or violated (as a woman &c.), be stained, be or become impure or contaminated; स्वल्पेनाप्यपकारेण ब्राह्मण्यमिव दुष्यति Pt.1. 66; Ms.7.24;9.318;1.12. -3 To sin, commit a mistake, be wrong. -4 To be unchaste or faithless. -Caus. (दूषयति-ते, but दूषयति-ते or दोषयति-ते in the sense of ‘making depraved’ or ‘corrupting’)
  • Anyone, who comments on a text does sort of contaminate it. That seems to be the logic in using the word दूषितान्

(6) सिद्धान्तान् – Established Rules

(7) उपपत्तिभिः – by derivations (maybe, also by illustrative examples)

(8) प्रकटये – प्र + कट् → Note कट् 1 P. (कटति, अकटीत्, कटितुम्) 1 To rain. -2 To surround. -3 To encompass, cover or screen.

  • प्रकटये = I shall detail

(9) तेषां वचो दूषये = I shall contaminate their talk (also). = I shall comment on those comments also.

इति टीकाकारोपोद्घातः As much as preface by the commentator.

श्लोक 1 below is from वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका of भट्टोजीदीक्षित. Rather, now begins वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका. But that also is preceded by the following note by श्रीकौण्डभट्ट.

पारिप्सितप्रतिबंधकोपशमनाय कृतं श्रीफणिस्मरणरूपं मङ्गलं शिष्यशिक्षार्थं निबध्नांश्चिकीर्षितं प्रतिजानीते –

This श्रीफणिस्मरणरूपं मङ्गलं omen unto and in respectful memory of श्रीफणि प्रतिजानीते seems  कृतं made for कोपशमनाय pacifying पारिप्सितप्रतिबंध possible objections   

(ग्रन्थादौ प्रतिज्ञा Declaration at the beginning of the composition)

फणिभाषितभाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः |

तत्र निर्णीत एवार्थः संक्षेपेणेह कथ्यते ||1||

  • फणिभाषित as said by श्रीफणि
  • भाष्याब्धेः From भाष्याब्धि  the ocean-like commentary
  • उद्द्धृतः is referred
  • शब्दकौस्तुभ jewel of words.
  • तत्र निर्णीतः एवार्थः Whatever interpretations are concluded there
  • संक्षेपेण इह कथ्यते are summarized here. 

श्रीकौण्डभट्ट appends following his own commentary on this श्लोक by भट्टोजीदीक्षित –

(1) उद्धृत – इत्यत्रास्माभिरिति शेषः | Where it says उद्धृत, here a word अस्माभिः ‘by ourselves’ is to be taken as implicit.

(2) भाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः – इत्युक्तिस्तु शब्दकौस्तुभोक्तार्थानामाधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितत्वनिरासाय

  • भाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः
  • इत्युक्तिस्तु – इति उक्तिः तु This statement  
  • शब्दकौस्तुभोक्तार्थानामाधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितत्वनिरासाय = शब्दकौस्तुभ-उक्त-अर्थानाम् आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षितत्व-निरासाय
  • निरासाय – For clarifying non-existence of
  • आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षितत्व any modern editing
  • शब्दकौस्तुभ-उक्त-अर्थानाम् – of अर्थ-s as are there in शब्दकौस्तुभ.

(3) अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्यास्य ग्रन्थस्याप्याधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितसारत्वापत्तौ पाणिनियानामनुपादेयतापत्तेः – Note, श्रीकौण्डभट्ट has composed his commentary using such long-winding compound words. It could be a natural style of writing for people in those times. But for us, all such compound words themselves have to be first deciphered. Actually is not a commentary supposed to help ready understanding of what may not be readily understood from reading the original text, especially if the original text is in metrical form ? श्रीकौण्डभट्ट’s commentary does not seem to be helpful for any ready understanding. Anyway –

  • अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्यास्य ग्रन्थस्याप्याधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितसारत्वापत्तौ पाणिनियानामनुपादेयतापत्तेः = अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्य अस्य ग्रन्थस्य अपि आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षित-सारत्व-आपत्तौ पाणिनियानाम् अनुपादेयता आपत्तेः
  • अन्यथा = Otherwise
  • तन्मूलकस्य = for (this one) based on that
  • अस्य ग्रन्थस्य अपि = for this composition also
  • आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षित-सारत्व-आपत्तौ = becomes the आपत्ति charge of सारत्व essence of (original) having been उत्प्रेक्षित superimposed or superseded or replaced by आधुनिक modern thought
  • पाणिनियानाम् अनुपादेयता आपत्तेः = The charge becomes replete with अनुपादेयता non-conformance to पाणिनि and such others.

(4) तत्र निर्णीत – इत्युक्तिरितोऽप्यधिकजिज्ञासुभिः शब्दकौस्तुभे द्रष्टव्यमिति ध्वनयितुम्

  • तत्र निर्णीत इति उक्तिः The quote तत्र निर्णीत
  • ध्वनयितुम् to sound इति that
  • इतः अपि अधिकजिज्ञासुभिः – those who want to know more than what is available here
  • शब्दकौस्तुभे द्रष्टव्यम् should refer or see in शब्दकौस्तुभ.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

 

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