वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः – Introduction

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षितविरचिताः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः

I have a book as above, published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे.

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित is more well-known for his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the सूत्र-s of पाणिनि are arranged according to topics in grammar. Possibly सिद्धान्तकौमुदी set up a style of studying Sanskrit grammar by topics and by that it became the first प्रकरणग्रन्थः

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित seems to have a particular liking for the word सिद्धान्त. This composition वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः also includes the word सिद्धान्त. Interestingly, whereas सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is mostly prose वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः is all poetry. Calibre of such people asश्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित composing a scholarly first प्रकरणग्रन्थः on Sanskrit grammar and also composing well-metered poetry, that too on Sanskrit grammar leaves one amazed.

For an overview of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः it would be good to glance through the topics, which can be noted from the first page and also on the contents page.

From the first page

  1. टीकाकारोपोद्घातः –  5 श्लोकाः by कौण्डभट्टवर्यः
  2. प्रतिज्ञाश्लोकः by भट्टोजीदीक्षितवर्यः

From the contents Page –

  1. धात्वर्थाख्यातसामान्यार्थनिर्णयः 20 श्लोकाः (2-21)
  2. लकारविशेषार्थनिरूपणम् 2 श्लोकौ (22, 23)
  3. सुबर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (24)
  4. नामार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (25-27)
  5. समासशक्तिनिर्णयः 8 श्लोकाः (28-35)
  6. शक्तिनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (36, 37, 38)
  7. नञर्थनिर्णयः 2 श्लोकौ (39, 40)
  8. निपातद्योतकत्वनिर्णयः 7 श्लोकाः (41-47)
  9. भावप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (48-50)
  10. देवताप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (51-53)
  11. अभेदैकत्वसंख्यायां वृत्तौ माननिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (54)
  12. उद्देश्यविधेययोः संख्याविवक्षानिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (55-57)
  13. क्त्वाद्यर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (58)
  14. स्फोटवादः 3 श्लोकाः (59-61)
  15. पदादिस्फोटनिरूपणम् 11 श्लोकाः (62-72)

The book published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे contains not just the 72 श्लोकाः but also a commentary in Sanskrit by कौण्डभट्ट. The commentary is named as वैयाकरणभूषणसार by कौण्डभट्ट the commentator. The commentary is prose.

Since both the वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः and the वैयाकरणभूषणसार-commentary are in Sanskrit, for myself to understand what is there in the book, I need to translate. I may as well share it on my blog on संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् so that comments from learned readers will improve the understanding.

One can make some guess about what is there in the book by looking at the contents. As many as 12 out of 17 sections have in their title, the word निर्णयः. One can deduce that all those topics offer instances, where logical decision will have to be arrived at. Eight of the 12 topics also contain the word अर्थ. One can hence deduce that these topics offer instances where selection of an appropriate interpretation would be needed. Almost at all places the words अर्थ and निर्णयः are in that order. So, the कारिकाः may be offering definitive guidance on अर्थनिर्णयः i.e. appropriate interpretation. That sounds appealing and interesting for a detailed study.

By the way, meaning of the word कारिका is given in Apte’s dictionary as “.. A memorial verse, or a collection of such verses, on grammatical, philosophical, or scientific subjects, e. g. Bhattojī Dīkṣita’s Kārikās on grammar; called वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका; सांख्यकारिका…”. Since कारिका means memorial verse(s), श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित certainly deemed them to be worthy of memorizing. That is why they are verses.

There are people who have memorized all the 3994 पाणिनिसूत्र-s of his अष्टाध्यायी. Some educationists demean such education by memorization as rote-learning. But one must acknowledge that it is memorization which helped to make available so much of Sanskrit literature even though the libraries of Nalanda and Taxila were burnt. The libraries are said to have been so huge, that the embers are said to have kept burning for so long as 26 days !

I can approach the task

  • By translation verse by verse, of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका and its commentary वैयाकरणभूषणसार or
  • scripting वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका at least topic by topic, if not scripting all the 72 verses in one go.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

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2 thoughts on “वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः – Introduction

  1. Respected Sir, I am looking forward to your translation of the karika and the commentary. Kindly do it verse by verse and also include notes and other tips which will make understanding easier for a sanskirt student. Thanks.

  2. You wrote, “Some educationists demean such education [learning by heart पाणिनिसूत्र-s for instance] by memorization as rote-learning.” It is time to place ‘rote-learning’ in a proper perspective. Traditionally, students in India were inducted into placing more emphasis on repeated effort (अभ्यास, स्वाध्याय) whereas their Western counterparts assign premium to ability following the Platonic tradition that emphasizes nature (i.e. innate ability). In India, memorizing and understanding are not viewed as separate but rather interlocking processes. Repetition (denigrated as ‘rote learning’ by Western academics and their ‘Indian sepoys’ as Rajiv Malhotra calls them) is used to deepen and develop understanding. Because each cycle of अभ्यास or स्वाध्याय has the potential to discover new meaning/s. Patanjali in the Yogasutra observes “…अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः” The Western students, on their part, tend to use repetition mainly to check that they had really remembered something.

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