शिवसूत्राणि

शिवसूत्राणि

In response to my article on Morphological Thoughts and अष्टाध्यायी, one दक्षा-महोदया enquired with me whether I have any write-up on माहेश्वरसूत्राणि. I thank दक्षा-महोदया for motivating this write-up.

The title above has the word शिवसूत्राणि. Obviously these are different names.

Some people contend that they should be called only as माहेश्वरसूत्राणि, because they are said to have been composed by a grammarian by the name महेश्वर.

There is another anecdote which contends that the सूत्र-s were realized by सनकादि ऋषि-s, when they were blessed by शिव by sounding his ढक्का/डमरू in (9+5) 14 patterns. This is so said in a श्लोक

नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजः ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् |

उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद्विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम् ||

Anyway, these are 14 सूत्र-s –

(1) अ इ उ ण् (2) ऋ ऌ क् (3) ए ओ ङ् (4) ऐ औ च् (5) ह य व र ट् (6) ल ण् (7) ञ म ङ ण न म् (8) झ भ ञ् (9) घ ढ ध ष् (10) ज ब ग ड द श् (11) ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् (12) क प य् (13) श ष स र् (14) ह ल् ॥

It be noted that every सूत्रम् ends with a consonant. That consonant is to be understood to be only the end-marker of the सूत्रम्. Leaving out the end markers, we can see that there are 43 elements (listed below in groups of 5 to make counting easy) –

अ इ उ ऋ ऌ

ए ओ ऐ औ ह

य व र ल ञ

म ङ ण न झ

भ घ ढ ध ज

ब ग ड द ख

फ छ ठ थ च

ट त क प श

ष स ह

This in a way is देवनागरी alphabet वर्णमाला. But the order is different from the way one learns it in schools or is followed in dictionaries. Also the letter ह is repeated. Omitting the repetition, we have 42 letters. Of these अ इ उ ऋ ऌ ए ओ ऐ औ these 9 are vowels. Rest 33 are consonants.

It becomes good to reorganize the सूत्र-s as

  • अ इ उ ण् । ऋ ऌ क् । ए ओ ङ् । ऐ औ च् । – Note, these are all vowels.
  • ह य व र ट् । ल ण् । – These are called as अन्तस्थ-s or half-vowels.
  • ञ म ङ ण न म् । – These are all nasals.
  • झ भ ञ् । घ ढ ध ष् । – These are महाप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जनानि stressed soft consonants
  • ज ब ग ड द श् । – These are अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जनानि unstressed soft consonants
  • ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् । क प य् । – These are कठोरव्यञ्जनानि harsh consonants
  • श ष स र् । – These are ऊष्मव्यञ्जनानि
  • ह ल् ॥ – Not to be counted, since it is a repeat ह.

The consonants in सूत्र-s 5 to 13 are written as they would be, when they have the vowel अ in them. This is only for the convenience of pronunciation. All consonants are basic sounds वर्ण-s. They can be combined with all vowels and we get अक्षर-s such as क् the वर्ण and from it अक्षर-s क का कि की कु कू कृ क्लृ के कै को कौ. Vowels also are basic sounds वर्ण-s. But because they can as well be pronounced independently, they are अक्षर-s also. That may help to understand the difference between वर्ण-s and अक्षर-s. Consonant sound can also be heard distinctly as in उत्, only when it is preceded by some sound capable of being pronounced independently. People in North India seem to prefer pronouncing the word स्त्री as इस्त्री. That is understandable, because to pronounce the beginning स् of स्त्री has no sound before it, which can be pronounced independently. Though this is understandable, if people in Maharashtra can pronounce स्त्री as स्त्री, there is no reason why people in north India also cannot.

Now, if we start with the first element अ, and put the first end-marker ण् with it, we get अण्. We can now consider that this अण् is the name संज्ञा of a set containing elements starting from अ and up to the end-marker ण्. The elements of this set are अ इ उ. In this manner we can take the first element अ and put along its side all the other end-markers and we shall have अक् अङ् अच् अट् अण् अम् अञ् अष् अश् अव् अय् अर् अल्. These are all संज्ञा-s, names of different sets. These are different sets, because the elements contained in each set are different. The largest among these is अल्. All the other sets are sort of subsets of अल्. Actually in the sequence अण् अक् अङ् अच् अट् अण् अम् … the name अण् gets repeated. In that case the rule to be followed is that the first occurrence of a संज्ञा is the only valid name. We can say that the name gets booked or reserved by its first occurrence. So its recurrence is to be neglected.

We can make such संज्ञा-s from every other वर्ण. For example from इ we shall have इण् इक् इङ् इच् इट् इम् इञ् इष् इश् इव् इय् इर् इल्.

Another rule in composing संज्ञा-s is that we go only forward. For example, starting from ह, we can only have हट् हम् हञ् हष् हश् हव् हय् हर् हल्. We cannot have हण् हक् हङ् हच्.

In this manner we can have

  • 13 संज्ञा-s each from अ इ उ ऋ ऌ, i.e. 65 संज्ञा-s,
  • 12 संज्ञा-s each from ए ओ, i.e. 24 संज्ञा-s
  • 11 संज्ञा-s each from ऐ औ i.e. 22 संज्ञा-s,
  • 10 संज्ञा-s each from ह य व र i.e. 40 संज्ञा-s,
  • 9 संज्ञा-s from ल,
  • 8 संज्ञा-s each from ञ म ङ ण न i.e. 40 संज्ञा-s,
  • 7 संज्ञा-s each from झ भ i.e. 14 संज्ञा-s,
  • 6 संज्ञा-s each from घ ढ ध i.e. 18 संज्ञा-s,
  • 5 संज्ञा-s each from ज ब ग ड द i.e. 25 संज्ञा-s,
  • 4 संज्ञा-s each from ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त i.e. 32 संज्ञा-s,
  • 3 संज्ञा-s each from क प i.e. 6 संज्ञा-s,
  • 2 संज्ञा-s each from श ष स i.e. 6 संज्ञा-s,

so total (65 + 24 + 22 + 40 + 9 + 40 + 14 + 18 + 25 + 32 + 6 + 6 =) 301 संज्ञा-s.

These संज्ञा-s are also called as प्रत्याहार-s. Hence माहेश्वरसूत्राणि or शिवसूत्राणि are also called as प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि. Since they are 14, they are also called as चतुर्दशसूत्राणि.

In अष्टाध्यायी one finds use of 42 of the above 301 प्रत्याहार-s. One can appreciate that by use of प्रत्याहार-s, composition of सूत्र-s becomes compact. That is what a सूत्र required to be. When one wants to refer to a property common to अ इ उ ऋ ऌ one states that that is the property of the प्रत्याहार अक्.

There is significance in calling प्रत्याहार-s as संज्ञा-s, because in अष्टाध्यायी one finds use of words derived from such संज्ञा-s, by their विभक्ति-वचन inflections. For example अकः is षष्ठी विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अक्. It is thus used in सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (६।१।१०१).

Actually there is some sound logic behind, why the वर्ण-s in माहेश्वरसूत्राणि are in the order they are. The logic is of commonality of properties. For example ए ओ are results of अ followed by इ and उ respectively.

Such respective order is also an important aspect in the order of the वर्ण-s in माहेश्वरसूत्राणि. For example when any vowel is to get added into इ उ ऋ ऌ these first change into their corresponding consonants य् व् र् ल्. The वर्णमाला as taught in schools has the order य र ल व. Even in dictionaries the order is य र ल व. But does not one appreciate that the order in माहेश्वरसूत्राणि has sound technical logic ?

The order of वर्ण-s in dictionaries has the logic of class वर्ग based on the place of genesis of the sound

  • क-वर्गीय consonants emanate from the throat कण्ठ्य,
  • च-वर्गीय consonants emanate by tongue near the teeth तालव्य,
  • ट-वर्गीय consonants emanate by tongue hitting the roof मूर्धन्य,
  • त-वर्गीय consonants emanate by tongue striking the gums दन्त्य,
  • प-वर्गीय consonants emanate from the lips ओष्ठ्य.

In अष्टाध्यायी the class-concept is taken note of, by naming the क-वर्ग as कु, च-वर्ग as चु, ट-वर्ग as टु, त-वर्ग as तु and प-वर्ग as पु.

माहेश्वरसूत्राणि truly serve as the building blocks of अष्टाध्यायी. One can say that अष्टाध्यायी is brilliant, may be, because माहेश्वरसूत्राणि are brilliant.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

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Morphological Thoughts

पदसिद्धिप्रक्रियाः

To find linguistics-equivalent of पदसिद्धिप्रक्रियाः, I thought of doing Google-search on “Morphology of words”. And lo ! I hit the nail on its head. I got the following – Morphology is the study of the structure and form of words in a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds. At the basic level, words are made of “morphemes.” These are the smallest units of meaning: roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes).

Taking clue from this detail of morphology related to formation of words, one can say that one view of why to study अष्टाध्यायी would be to understand morphology related to formation of words in Sanskrit.

In Sanskrit the processes of morphology do involve the morphemes – the roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes).

In Sanskrit roots are of two types – verbal roots धातु-s and nominal roots प्रातिपदिक-s

Prefixes उपसर्ग-s are 22 – प्र। परा। अप। सम्। अनु। अव। निस्। निर्। दुस्। दुर्। वि। आङ्। नि। अधि। अपि। अति। सु। उत् |अभि। प्रति। परि। उप।  

In Sanskrit suffixes प्रत्यय-s are many. Some study of प्रत्यय-s can be read at https://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/category/%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%83/

There are also inflections, derivations and the formation of compounds. These words are grammatical terminologies. Let me check them one by one.

  • Inflections – a change in the form of a word (typically the ending) to express a grammatical function or attribute such as tense, mood, person, number, case, and gender. In Sanskrit functions of inflections are served by suffixes प्रत्यय-s only.
    • Typically words get grammatical attributes such as tense, mood, person, number by तिङ्-suffixes
    • words get grammatical attributes such as number, case, and gender by सुप्-प्रत्यय-s
  • Derivations – In Sanskrit derivations are innumerable.
    • For example from a verbal root one can derive 12 more उपधातु-s for extended functions such as causative, desiderative, repetitive, etc. Words having attributes of tense, mood, person, number by तिङ्-suffixes can be derived from the उपधातु-s also. Even change of voice can be effected for them.
    • One can speak of seven generations for any person, for example प्रपितामहः, पितामहः, पिता, सः, पुत्रः, पौत्रः, प्रपौत्रः Grammatical attributes such as number, case, and gender by सुप्-प्रत्यय-s will apply to all these.
    • One can also speak of seven days, 3 days prior to today प्रपरह्यः परह्यः ह्यः today अद्य and three days next श्वः परश्वः प्रपरश्वः Note, these are single words, unlike “day before yesterday” or “day after tomorrow” in English.

Going further, पदसिद्धिप्रक्रियाः include additions आगमाः (such as इडागमः), deletions (लोपाः), substitutions (स्थाने अन्यत्) and modifications (आदेशाः, विकरणाः सन्धयश्च).

Importance and charm of अष्टाध्यायी lies exactly in this that it has set up a grammatical logic to all word-formations and that logic will have to be followed for all time to come if any Sanskrit utterance is to be fit to be called as Sanskrit utterance.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

वैयाकरणभूषणसार – Preface

वैयाकरणभूषणसारे उपोद्घातः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकायाम् प्रतिज्ञा च |

वैयाकरणभूषणसार is commentary by कौण्डभट्ट on वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका by भट्टोजीदीक्षित.

Although वैयाकरणभूषणसार is a prose commentary, the author कौण्डभट्ट has composed उपोद्घात the preface in 5 metrical stanzas.

In the third stanza of उपोद्घात, कौण्डभट्ट makes reference to भट्टोजीदीक्षित whom he mentions to be his पितृव्य fore-father. श्लोक-s 1 to 4 are in अनुष्टुभ्-छन्दः, whereas the last one is in शार्दूलविक्रीडितम्.

I shall attempt English interpretation of these 5 stanzas. First, the word उपोद्घातः itself.

उपोद्घातः –

  • उपोद्घातः उप + उत् + घातः
    • घातः [हन्-णिच् घञ्] 1 A blow, stroke, bruise, hit
    • उद्घातः – 1 P.VII.3.54. Beginning, commencement; उद्घातः प्रणवो यासाम् Ku.2.12
      • P.VII.3.54 denotes सूत्रम् – हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु
      • Literally or by its etymology उद्घातः seems to mean ‘blowing up’
      • ‘blowing up’ is like blowing a trumpet, which is announcement of the beginning of an activity, e.g. a war
      • ‘blowing up’ is also similar to day-break, which is also beginning of the day.
    • Since उपोद्घातः is उप + उद्घातः something similar to उद्घातः
    • In Apte’s dictionary उपोद्घातः – 1 A beginning, commencement. -2 An introduction, a preface

Prefaces in Sanskrit-works start with obeisances. It is not to be expected that there will be grammatical detailing or explanation of the meanings. But because I want to put it all in English, I have attempted grammatical detailing and explanation of the meanings as स्वाध्यायः my own self-study. E. & O. E. !

श्रीलक्ष्मीरमणं नौमि गौरीरमणरूपिणम् |

स्फोटरूपं यतः सर्वं जगदेतद्विवर्तते ||1||

श्रीलक्ष्मीरमणं नौमि गौरीरमणरूपिणम् | स्फोटरूपं यतः सर्वं जगत् एतत् विवर्तते ||1|| – I bow to श्रीलक्ष्मीरमण who is also seen as गौरीरमण and from whom all this world has emerged स्फोटरूपम् as if by a bang.

अशेषफलदातारं भवाब्धितरणे तरिम् |

शेषाशेषार्थलाभार्थं प्रार्थये शेषभूषणम् ||2||

To Him, who is शेषभूषण adorned by the शेष, who is तरि the boat भवाब्धितरणे to transcend this ocean of life, who is अशेषफलदातार who bestows fruits uninhibited, प्रार्थये I pray for लाभार्थं giving proper meaning to शेषाशेषार्थ all acts (even) of शेष omission and अशेष commission. What a wonderful deployment of the words शेष and अशेष !

वाग्देवी यस्य जिह्वाग्रे नरीनर्ति सदा मुदा |

भट्टोजीदीक्षितमहं पितृव्यं नौमि सिद्धये ||3||

For सिद्धये fulfilment of task on hand, अहं I (also) नौमि bow to पितृव्य my fore-father भट्टोजीदीक्षित, who has had मुदा merrily नरीनर्ति dancing again and again सदा always जिह्वाग्रे on the tip of his tongue, वाग्देवी the goddess of speech,

नत्वा गणेशपादाब्जं गुरूनथ सरस्वतीम् |

श्रीकौण्डभट्टः कुर्वेऽहं वैयाकरणभूषणम् ||4||

अहं, I कौण्डभट्ट also नत्वा bow at पादाब्ज the lotus feet of गणेश, गुरून् unto my precepts अथ and unto Goddess सरस्वती and कुर्वे proceed to compose this वैयाकरणभूषणम्.

पाणिन्यादिमुनीन्प्रणम्य पितरं रंगोजिभट्टाभिधम् |

द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकां पुंभाववाग्देवतान् ||

ढण्ढिं गौतमजैमिनीयवचनव्याख्यातृभिर्दूषितान् |

सिद्धान्ताननुपत्तिभिः प्रकटये तेषां वचो दूषये ||5||

I प्रणम्य salute पाणिनि-आदि and other मुनि -s and पितरं my father अभिध known as रंगोजिभट्ट

(1) द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकाम् – ध्वंस्

  • (1-1) द्वैतध्वान्त –
    • द्वैतम् [द्विधा इतं द्वितं तस्य भावः स्वार्थे अण्] 1 Duality. -2 Dualism in philosophy, the assertion of two distinct principles, such as the maintenance of the doctrine that, spirit and matter, Brahman and the Universe, or the Individual and the Supreme Soul, are different from each other; cf. अद्वैत; किं शास्त्रं श्रवणेन यस्य गलति द्वैतान्ध- कारोत्करः Bv.1.86. -3 N. of a forest.
    • ध्वान्तम् Darkness
    • द्वैतध्वान्त = darkness of duality
  • (1-2) निवारणादिफलिकाम् –
    • निवारः निवारणम् 1 Keeping off, preventing, warding off; दंशनिवारणैश्च R.2.5. -2 Prohibition, impediment.
    • फलम् [फल्-अच्] A result, fruit, consequence, effect
  • (1-3) द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकाम् (प्रणम्य) = (I bow) to/unto her, who would bestow the fruit of keeping off the darkness of duality &c.

(2) पुंभाववाग्देवतान् (प्रणम्य) –

  • पुंसः भावः इति पुंभावः = masculine aptitude
  • वाचः देवता इति वाग्देवता = deity of speech
  • पुंभाववाग्देवतान् (प्रणम्य) = I bow unto the deities of speech of masculine aptitude
  • I don’t think, I have understood what कौण्डभट्ट had in mind in making mention of such deities.

(3) ढण्ढिं – No explanation found in Apte’s dictionary for this word

(4) गौतमजैमिनीयवचनव्याख्यातृभिः – By व्याख्याता-s i.e. by those, who explained वचन-s statements of गौतमजैमिनीय i.e. of गौतम and जैमिनीय

(5) दूषितान् – दूषित a. [दुष्-णिच्-क्त] 1 Corrupted. defiled, spoiled.

  • दुष् 4 P. (दुष्यति, दुष्ट) 1 To be bad or corrupted, be spoiled or suffer damage. -2 To be defiled or violated (as a woman &c.), be stained, be or become impure or contaminated; स्वल्पेनाप्यपकारेण ब्राह्मण्यमिव दुष्यति Pt.1. 66; Ms.7.24;9.318;1.12. -3 To sin, commit a mistake, be wrong. -4 To be unchaste or faithless. -Caus. (दूषयति-ते, but दूषयति-ते or दोषयति-ते in the sense of ‘making depraved’ or ‘corrupting’)
  • Anyone, who comments on a text does sort of contaminate it. That seems to be the logic in using the word दूषितान्

(6) सिद्धान्तान् – Established Rules

(7) उपपत्तिभिः – by derivations (maybe, also by illustrative examples)

(8) प्रकटये – प्र + कट् → Note कट् 1 P. (कटति, अकटीत्, कटितुम्) 1 To rain. -2 To surround. -3 To encompass, cover or screen.

  • प्रकटये = I shall detail

(9) तेषां वचो दूषये = I shall contaminate their talk (also). = I shall comment on those comments also.

इति टीकाकारोपोद्घातः As much as preface by the commentator.

श्लोक 1 below is from वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका of भट्टोजीदीक्षित. Rather, now begins वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका. But that also is preceded by the following note by श्रीकौण्डभट्ट.

पारिप्सितप्रतिबंधकोपशमनाय कृतं श्रीफणिस्मरणरूपं मङ्गलं शिष्यशिक्षार्थं निबध्नांश्चिकीर्षितं प्रतिजानीते –

This श्रीफणिस्मरणरूपं मङ्गलं omen unto and in respectful memory of श्रीफणि प्रतिजानीते seems  कृतं made for कोपशमनाय pacifying पारिप्सितप्रतिबंध possible objections   

(ग्रन्थादौ प्रतिज्ञा Declaration at the beginning of the composition)

फणिभाषितभाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः |

तत्र निर्णीत एवार्थः संक्षेपेणेह कथ्यते ||1||

  • फणिभाषित as said by श्रीफणि
  • भाष्याब्धेः From भाष्याब्धि  the ocean-like commentary
  • उद्द्धृतः is referred
  • शब्दकौस्तुभ jewel of words.
  • तत्र निर्णीतः एवार्थः Whatever interpretations are concluded there
  • संक्षेपेण इह कथ्यते are summarized here. 

श्रीकौण्डभट्ट appends following his own commentary on this श्लोक by भट्टोजीदीक्षित –

(1) उद्धृत – इत्यत्रास्माभिरिति शेषः | Where it says उद्धृत, here a word अस्माभिः ‘by ourselves’ is to be taken as implicit.

(2) भाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः – इत्युक्तिस्तु शब्दकौस्तुभोक्तार्थानामाधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितत्वनिरासाय

  • भाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः
  • इत्युक्तिस्तु – इति उक्तिः तु This statement  
  • शब्दकौस्तुभोक्तार्थानामाधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितत्वनिरासाय = शब्दकौस्तुभ-उक्त-अर्थानाम् आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षितत्व-निरासाय
  • निरासाय – For clarifying non-existence of
  • आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षितत्व any modern editing
  • शब्दकौस्तुभ-उक्त-अर्थानाम् – of अर्थ-s as are there in शब्दकौस्तुभ.

(3) अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्यास्य ग्रन्थस्याप्याधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितसारत्वापत्तौ पाणिनियानामनुपादेयतापत्तेः – Note, श्रीकौण्डभट्ट has composed his commentary using such long-winding compound words. It could be a natural style of writing for people in those times. But for us, all such compound words themselves have to be first deciphered. Actually is not a commentary supposed to help ready understanding of what may not be readily understood from reading the original text, especially if the original text is in metrical form ? श्रीकौण्डभट्ट’s commentary does not seem to be helpful for any ready understanding. Anyway –

  • अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्यास्य ग्रन्थस्याप्याधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितसारत्वापत्तौ पाणिनियानामनुपादेयतापत्तेः = अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्य अस्य ग्रन्थस्य अपि आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षित-सारत्व-आपत्तौ पाणिनियानाम् अनुपादेयता आपत्तेः
  • अन्यथा = Otherwise
  • तन्मूलकस्य = for (this one) based on that
  • अस्य ग्रन्थस्य अपि = for this composition also
  • आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षित-सारत्व-आपत्तौ = becomes the आपत्ति charge of सारत्व essence of (original) having been उत्प्रेक्षित superimposed or superseded or replaced by आधुनिक modern thought
  • पाणिनियानाम् अनुपादेयता आपत्तेः = The charge becomes replete with अनुपादेयता non-conformance to पाणिनि and such others.

(4) तत्र निर्णीत – इत्युक्तिरितोऽप्यधिकजिज्ञासुभिः शब्दकौस्तुभे द्रष्टव्यमिति ध्वनयितुम्

  • तत्र निर्णीत इति उक्तिः The quote तत्र निर्णीत
  • ध्वनयितुम् to sound इति that
  • इतः अपि अधिकजिज्ञासुभिः – those who want to know more than what is available here
  • शब्दकौस्तुभे द्रष्टव्यम् should refer or see in शब्दकौस्तुभ.

शुभमस्तु |

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वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः – Introduction

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षितविरचिताः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः

I have a book as above, published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे.

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित is more well-known for his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the सूत्र-s of पाणिनि are arranged according to topics in grammar. Possibly सिद्धान्तकौमुदी set up a style of studying Sanskrit grammar by topics and by that it became the first प्रकरणग्रन्थः

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित seems to have a particular liking for the word सिद्धान्त. This composition वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः also includes the word सिद्धान्त. Interestingly, whereas सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is mostly prose वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः is all poetry. Calibre of such people asश्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित composing a scholarly first प्रकरणग्रन्थः on Sanskrit grammar and also composing well-metered poetry, that too on Sanskrit grammar leaves one amazed.

For an overview of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः it would be good to glance through the topics, which can be noted from the first page and also on the contents page.

From the first page

  1. टीकाकारोपोद्घातः –  5 श्लोकाः by कौण्डभट्टवर्यः
  2. प्रतिज्ञाश्लोकः by भट्टोजीदीक्षितवर्यः

From the contents Page –

  1. धात्वर्थाख्यातसामान्यार्थनिर्णयः 20 श्लोकाः (2-21)
  2. लकारविशेषार्थनिरूपणम् 2 श्लोकौ (22, 23)
  3. सुबर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (24)
  4. नामार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (25-27)
  5. समासशक्तिनिर्णयः 8 श्लोकाः (28-35)
  6. शक्तिनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (36, 37, 38)
  7. नञर्थनिर्णयः 2 श्लोकौ (39, 40)
  8. निपातद्योतकत्वनिर्णयः 7 श्लोकाः (41-47)
  9. भावप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (48-50)
  10. देवताप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (51-53)
  11. अभेदैकत्वसंख्यायां वृत्तौ माननिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (54)
  12. उद्देश्यविधेययोः संख्याविवक्षानिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (55-57)
  13. क्त्वाद्यर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (58)
  14. स्फोटवादः 3 श्लोकाः (59-61)
  15. पदादिस्फोटनिरूपणम् 11 श्लोकाः (62-72)

The book published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे contains not just the 72 श्लोकाः but also a commentary in Sanskrit by कौण्डभट्ट. The commentary is named as वैयाकरणभूषणसार by कौण्डभट्ट the commentator. The commentary is prose.

Since both the वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः and the वैयाकरणभूषणसार-commentary are in Sanskrit, for myself to understand what is there in the book, I need to translate. I may as well share it on my blog on संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् so that comments from learned readers will improve the understanding.

One can make some guess about what is there in the book by looking at the contents. As many as 12 out of 17 sections have in their title, the word निर्णयः. One can deduce that all those topics offer instances, where logical decision will have to be arrived at. Eight of the 12 topics also contain the word अर्थ. One can hence deduce that these topics offer instances where selection of an appropriate interpretation would be needed. Almost at all places the words अर्थ and निर्णयः are in that order. So, the कारिकाः may be offering definitive guidance on अर्थनिर्णयः i.e. appropriate interpretation. That sounds appealing and interesting for a detailed study.

By the way, meaning of the word कारिका is given in Apte’s dictionary as “.. A memorial verse, or a collection of such verses, on grammatical, philosophical, or scientific subjects, e. g. Bhattojī Dīkṣita’s Kārikās on grammar; called वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका; सांख्यकारिका…”. Since कारिका means memorial verse(s), श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित certainly deemed them to be worthy of memorizing. That is why they are verses.

There are people who have memorized all the 3994 पाणिनिसूत्र-s of his अष्टाध्यायी. Some educationists demean such education by memorization as rote-learning. But one must acknowledge that it is memorization which helped to make available so much of Sanskrit literature even though the libraries of Nalanda and Taxila were burnt. The libraries are said to have been so huge, that the embers are said to have kept burning for so long as 26 days !

I can approach the task

  • By translation verse by verse, of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका and its commentary वैयाकरणभूषणसार or
  • scripting वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका at least topic by topic, if not scripting all the 72 verses in one go.

शुभमस्तु !

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