क्त-क्तवतु-प्रत्ययाभ्यां कृदन्ताः |
(सन्दर्भग्रन्थः – “कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषण”-इति लेखकः डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र-वर्यः, चौखंबा विद्याभवनेन वाराणस्यां प्रकाशितः । अत्र विवेचनं तु हिन्दीभाषायाम् ।)
Verbal Derivatives with क्त/क्तवतु-suffixes
(1) These two are most common derivatives of verbal roots धातु-s in संस्कृत.
(2) In Apte’s dictionary the derivatives
- with क्त-प्रत्यय are denoted by the abbreviation p. p. (Past Passive Participle)
- those with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय are denoted by the abbreviation pres. p. (Present participle)
- The derivatives with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय are just extensions of those with क्त-प्रत्यय, with an additional वत् added to them. For example from धातु कृ, with क्त-प्रत्यय it is कृत, with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय it becomes कृतवत्
- Hence both derivatives can be substantially studied together.
- It should be noted that those with क्त-प्रत्यय have Past tense and passive voice inherent.
- But those with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय have present tense and active voice inherent. The connotation in Apte’s dictionary as क्तवतु-प्रत्यय = pres. p. (Present participle) is not convincing. It seems more appropriate to consider that past tense is common to both derivatives with क्त-प्रत्यय and with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय. There is only change of voice.
- One can say that passive voice inherent in derivatives with क्त-प्रत्यय can be transformed into active voice by using derivatives with क्तवतु-प्रत्यय. For example,
- The sculpture was seen by me (Passive voice) – मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् |
- I saw the sculpture (Active voice) – अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् |
- Although अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् is mentioned for the meaning “I saw the sculpture” (Past Simple) the Sanskrit sentence can as well connote “I have seen the sculpture” अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् (अस्मि) (Present perfect) or “I had seen the sculpture” अहं शिल्पं दृष्टवान् (आसम्) (Past perfect). The verbs in brackets (अस्मि) or (आसम्) may not be actually uttered, but can be understood by context. Hence the verbal derivative दृष्टवान् can be taken to be serving the function of the verb.
- Same logic applies to मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् = “The sculpture has been seen by me” मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् (अस्ति) (Present perfect) or “The sculpture had been seen by me” मया शिल्पं दृष्टम् (आसीत्) (Past perfect).
(3) In Sanskrit, these derivatives are not just participles, but they are adjectival. Hence they have forms in all three genders, all eight cases and all three numbers.
(4) What is interesting in studying these Verbal Derivatives with क्त/क्तवतु-suffixes is their formation processes प्रक्रिया-s. I do not intend to detail the प्रक्रिया-s in their entirety. But I would like to get a classification-view.
(5) First of all, the suffix क्त (क् + त) affixes as त, since the क्-part gets dropped as a part of the प्रक्रिया, Or we can say that what suffix affixes as त, has been given a grammatical name as क्त, to distinguish it from other suffixes.
(6) Also suffix क्तवतु affixes as वत्
(7) It should be good to focus primarily on suffix क्त.
(8) The formation processes प्रक्रिया-s yield following types of क्त-कृदन्त-s.
- Simple affix of त e.g. भा → भात, मा → मात, या → यात, रा → रात, वा → वात, ज्ञा → ज्ञात, इ →इत,, जि → जित, ई → ईत, नी → नीत, कृ → कृत, मृ → मृत
- By some modification of vowel in the धातु, e.g. गै → गीत, दा → दत्त, ध्यै → ध्यात, पा → पीत,
- By dropping of the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. गम् → गत, नम् → नत, यम् → यत, रम् → रत
- By substitution of the consonant in the धातु, e.g. अद् → अत्त, धा → हित,
- By suffix त becoming ट, e.g. इष् → इष्ट, मिष् → मिष्ट, विष् → विष्ट, शिष् → शिष्ट, पुष् → पुष्ट,
- By suffix त becoming ट and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. नश् → नष्ट, दृश् → दृष्ट, स्पृश् → स्पृष्ट, पिश् → पिष्ट, पृच्छ् → पृष्ट
- By suffix त becoming न or ण, e.g. ली → लीन, पूर् → पूर्ण (also see पॄ),
- By suffix त becoming न or ण and also change in the vowel of the धातु, e.g. क्षि → क्षीण, हा → हीन, जॄ –> जीर्ण, तॄ → तीर्ण, पॄ → पूर्ण, स्तॄ → स्तीर्ण,
- By suffix त becoming न or ण and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. अद् → अन्न, खिद् → खिन्न, छिद् → छिन्न, भिद् → भिन्न
- By suffix त becoming द and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. शप् → शब्द
- By suffix त becoming ध and also change in the ending consonant of the धातु, e.g. दह् → दग्ध, दिह् → दिग्ध, दुह् → दुग्ध, मुह् → मुग्ध (also मुह् → मूढ) क्षुभ् → क्षुब्ध, स्तम्भ् → स्तब्ध,
- By influx of इ or ई e.g. खाद् → खादित, शाप् → शापित, गृह् → गृहीत, जॄ –> जारित, दम्भ् → दंभित, मिश्र् → मिश्रित, वाञ्छ् → वाञ्छित,
- By influx of इ or ई (called as इडागमः) and substantial change in the धातु, e.g. ऋ → अर्पित
- Causative णिजन्त, desiderative सन्नन्त, repetitive यङन्त forms of धातु-s often get इडागमः e. g. पठ् → पाठय् → पाठित, स्था → स्थापय् → स्थापित, स्तम्भ् → स्तम्भय् → स्तंभित, पा → पिपास् → पिपासित,
(9) In his book डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र has devoted as many as 116 paras when discussing क्त-कृदन्त-s. I hope, the above detailing covers most of the major varieties of क्त-कृदन्त-s. All the क्त-कृदन्त-s can be proved by their derivation. डॉ. गोपबन्धु मिश्र has done that in his book. My simple objective has been to just compile the major varieties. I shall be obliged, if विद्वांसः would add any varieties, missed by me.
(10) As can be seen some धातु-s would have more than one optional forms, e.g. मुह् → मुग्ध (also मुह् → मूढ). The optional forms connote some different shade of meaning. For example मुग्ध means perplexed, मूढ means befooled.
(11) Also some different धातु-s would have same form, e.g. पॄ → पूर्ण, also पूर् → पूर्ण. This becomes so, especially when the meanings of the different धातु-s are identical.