Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Paras 5, 6, 7

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Paras 5, 6, 7

व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः – पञ्चषष्ठसप्तम-(५, ६, ७)-परिच्छेदाः

  1. Prepositions –
  • (5-1) There is no Preposition as such in Sanskrit.
  • (5-2) In English Prepositions are of two types –
    • (5-2-1) Articles a, an, the
    • (5-2-2) Articles a and an are only for singular. Article the is used both for singular and plural.
    • (5-2-3) There are no Articles as such in Sanskrit.
    • (5-2-4) In Sanskrit the function of articles is served by वचन-wise declensions of nouns, pronouns and adjectives. In Sanskrit वचन-s are three – singular एकवचनम्, dual द्विवचनम् and plural बहुवचनम्
  • (5-3) In English there are also Prepositions such as – to, by, with, for, from, after, of, in, at, on, upon, above, under, underneath, beneath, till, until
  • (5-4) In Sanskrit, function of these Prepositions is served by
    • (5-4-1) case-suffixes known as विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s or सुप्-प्रत्यय-s
    • (5-4-2) some special suffixes as तः, पर्यन्तम् (= till, until, up to),
    • (5-4-3) some indeclinables such as सह, सार्धम्, समम्, अधस्, उपरि, नीचैः, पश्चात् (= after)
    • (5-4-4) some special prefixes as आ (= until, unto, up to) as in आमरणम्
  1. Prefixes = उपसर्गाः
  • (6-1) In गणपाठ 22 उपसर्गाः are enumerated to detail their mention in अष्टाध्यायी as प्रादयः (१।४।५८). One can consider them to be basically 20. They can be prefixed as a single prefix or as more than one prefixes together.
  • (6-2) There are Prefixes in English, e.g. describe, subscribe, prescribe, unsubscribe, etc. As in Sanskrit, in English also Prefixes are affixed as a single prefix (e.g. subscribe) or as more than one prefixes together (e.g. unsubscribe).
  1. Suffixes = प्रत्ययाः
  • (7-1) In English suffixes are
    • (7-1-1) for making plurals e.g. ball → balls, but radius → radii
    • (7-1-2) for making specific verb-forms and participles
      • (7-1-2-1) present tense, third person singular e.g. go → goes,
      • (7-1-2-2) gerunds, e.g. going
      • (7-1-2-3) past tense e.g. ask → asked, but go → went
      • (7-1-2-4) past passive participles e.g. ask → asked, but go → gone
      • (7-1-2-5) for agents of action e.g. do → doer
  • (7-2) In Sanskrit प्रत्ययाः suffixes are of three main categories
    • (7-2-1) सुप्-प्रत्ययाः – These are affixed to root-forms प्रातिपदिकानि of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to get word-forms शब्दरूपाणि. These are summarized by PaNini in an aphorism –  स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्॥ ४।१।२
      • This is to be deciphered as (1) सु (2) औ (3) जस् (4) अम् (5) औट् (6) शस् (7) टा (8) भ्यां (9) भिस् (10) ङे (11) भ्यां (12) भ्यस् (13) ङसि (14) भ्यां (15) भ्यस् (16) ङस् (17) ओस् (18) आं (19) ङि (20) ओस् (21) सुप्
      • It may be noted that the last one is सुप्. That is the logic behind calling these as सुप्-प्रत्ययाः.
    • (7-2-2) तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः – These are affixed to root-forms of verbs i.e. to धातु-s, to get verb-forms क्रियापदानि These are summarized by PaNini in an aphorism तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्ताऽतांझथासाथाम्ध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् ३।४।७८ Note the first one is तिप् and the last one is ङ्. That is the logic behind calling these suffixes as तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः
      • (7-2-2-1) in Past भूतकाल, Present वर्तमानकाल and Future भविष्यत्काल tenses
      • (7-2-2-2) in different moods such as Imperative Mood आज्ञार्थ, Potential Mood विध्यर्थ.
      • (7-2-2-3) In Sanskrit, by tenses and moods, there are 10 main types known as लकार-s
    • (7-2-3 कृत्-प्रत्ययाः – Using suffixes of this category, one gets verbal derivatives. In a book with the title कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषण Dr. Gopabandhu Mishra has details of some 139 कृत्-प्रत्यय-s. One gets
      • (7-2-3-1) abstract nouns भाववाचकनामानि by employing some कृत्-प्रत्ययाः e.g. कृ → कृतिः, करणम्, आकारः,
      • (7-2-3-2) adjectives विशेषणानि by employing some कृत्-प्रत्ययाः e.g.
        • (7-2-3-2-1) By affixing a suffix called as शतृ-प्रत्यय e.g. कृ → कृत् (= doing), or By affixing a suffix called as शानच्-प्रत्यय e.g. क्रियमाण (= being done), English considered this as Active participle. But what one gets by affixing this suffix is a wholesome adjective and not just a participle. There is something similar in English also, e.g. To participate → participant
        • By affixing a suffix called as न्यत् (ण्यत्) or यत्-प्रत्यय e.g. कार्य (=doable), कर्तव्य (= what must be done), करणीय (= what should be done),
        • By affixing a suffix called as क्त-प्रत्यय e.g. कृत (= done) English considered this parallel to Past Passive participle in English. But what one gets by affixing this suffix is a wholesome adjective and not just a participle.
      • (7-2-3-3) adverbials by employing some कृत्-प्रत्ययाः e.g. कृ → कृत्वा (= after doing), संस्कृत्य (= after refining), कर्तुम् (= for doing)
  • (7-3) Word-formation पदसिद्धिः in Sanskrit is a very evolved thought. It is just like a large tree sprouting from a single seed but spreading with innumerable branches leaves, flowers, fruits and also the pollen inside a flower promoting growth of more number of plants. This happens by more and more variety of suffixes coming into play.
    • (7-3-1) तद्धित-प्रत्ययाः – Suffixes which help to form newer nouns, adjectives from known nouns, adjectives. There is something similar in English also, e.g. Quality गुणः → Qualitative गुणीय
      • (7-3-1-1) In Sanskrit there are processes defined for speaking of a lineage of five generations प्रपितामहः (great grandfather),पितामहः (grandfather), पिता (father), पुत्रः (son), पौत्रः (grandson), प्रपौत्रः (great grandson ? I am not sure, whether this is a valid word-formation in English)
      • (7-3-1-2) In Sanskrit one can speak of a whole week – प्रपरह्यः परह्यः (day before yesterday) ह्यः (yesterday) अद्य(today)  श्वः (tomorrow) परश्वः (day after tomorrow) प्रपरश्वः
      • Mentioned at (7-3-1-1) and (7-3-1-2) are not exactly examples of तद्धित-प्रत्ययाः. But they do explain various processes available for word-formation, to extend the reach of words, both behind and forward, from micro to macro.
      • It should be interesting to note that components of atom were taken note of at least 3500 years back, as is evidenced by the mention of अणोरणीयान् (= अणोः अणीयान्) समनुस्मरेद्यः See गीता 8-9. अणोः = of atom, अणीयाः = components of atom. As can be noted, अणीय is derived from, तद्धित of अणुः
      • In drawing an Organogram as also in drawing a family-tree, there is the concept of showing Parent-Child relations. तद्धित-प्रत्यय-concept in Sanskrit grammar not only addresses this but many large number of derivations and word-formations, e.g. द्रुपदः → द्रौपदी → द्रौपदेयाः
    • (7-3-2) Suffixes for forming feminines स्त्री-प्रत्ययाः
      • Indian Constitution considered राष्ट्रपति as the word equivalent to President. But राष्ट्रपति is a masculine word. When Shrimati Pratibha Patil became President, this designation राष्ट्रपति became a problem. It seems that enough thought had not been given in considering राष्ट्रपति to be the word equivalent to President. The word should have been राष्ट्राध्यक्षः (masculine) / राष्ट्राध्यक्षा (feminine)
      • In English also, Chairman has been a common designation. Then a term Chairperson was needed to be coined to make the term free from gender-bias.
    • (7-3-3) There is a large number of suffixes called as उणादयः Note, उणादि = उण्-आदि (= उण् &c.) → its plural उणादयः
  • (7-4) I think converse of word-formation is the study of genesis or etymology व्युत्पत्तिः of a word.

— End of Part 7 —

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