Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Index Sanskrit/English

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes

व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः

आद्याक्षरानुसारी सूची = Alphabetical Index

अक्षरम् = Alphabet

अङ्कः = Numeral

अन्वयः = Syntax

अर्थः = Mood

आज्ञार्थः = Imperative Mood (8-5-1)

आद्याक्षरानुसारी सूची = Alphabetical Index

आशीर्लिङ्-लकारः = Benedictine mood

आशीर्वादार्थः = Benedictine mood

उद्गारवाचकम् = Interjection

उपसर्गः = Prefix

एकवचनम् = Singular

कालः = Tense

कृदन्तानि = Having suffixes which make verbal derivatives

क्रमवाचका संख्या = Ordinal number (4-3-3-2)

क्रियाविशेषणम् = Adverb (9)

णिच्-प्रक्रिया = Causative

तमभावः = Superlative Degree

तरभावः = Comparative Degree

तिङन्तं पदम् = Verb

तिङन्तानि = Having suffixes, which make verbs (See Para 8)

द्विवचनम् = Dual

धातुः = Verbal Root

नपुंसकलिङ्गि = Neuter (See Para 2-3)

नाम = Noun (See Para 2)

पदसिद्धिः = Word-formation (7-4)

पुँल्लिङ्गि = Masculine (See Para 2-3)

प्रत्ययः = Suffix

प्रयोजक-प्रक्रिया = Causative

प्रश्नार्थकम् = Interrogative (8-9)

प्रातिपदिकम् = Root form of Words (Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives)

बहुवचनम् = Plural

भविष्यत्-कालः = Future Tense (8-4-4)

भाषा = Language

भूतकालः = Past Tense (8-4-3)

माध्यमम् = Medium

मूल्यान्विता संख्या = Cardinal Number (4-3-1-1)

लट्-लकारः = Present Tense

लुप्तप्रत्ययानि = having suffixes, which dropped off

लोट्-लकारः = Imperative Mood (8-5-1)

वचनम् = Number (4-2-4)

वर्णः = Alphabet, Syllable

वर्तमानकालः = Present Tense

वाक्पदानि = Parts of Speech (See Para 1)

विधिलिङ्-लकारः = Potential Mood

विध्यर्थः = Potential Mood

विशेषणम् = Adjective

व्यञ्जनम् = Consonant

व्याकरणम् = Grammar

व्युत्पत्तिः = Etymology (7-4)

शब्दः = Word

संख्या = Number

संख्यावाचकविशेषणम् = Numerical adjective (4-3)

संयोजकम् = Conjunction

सर्वनाम = Pronoun

सुबन्तानि = Having Case-suffixes (See Para 2-1)

स्त्रीलिङ्गि = Feminine (See Para 2-3)

सन्-प्रक्रिया = Desiderative

सहाय्यकधातुः = Auxiliary verb (8-9-1)

स्वरः = Vowel

— End of सूची, subject to updating —

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Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Index English/Sanskrit

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes

व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः

Alphabetical Index = आद्याक्षरानुसारी सूची

Adjective = विशेषणम् (See Para 4)

Adverb = क्रियाविशेषणम् (9)

Alphabet = अक्षरम्

Alphabetical Index = आद्याक्षरानुसारी सूची

Auxiliary verb = सहाय्यकधातुः (8-9-1)

Benedictine mood = आशीर्वादार्थः or आशीर्लिङ्-लकारः

Cardinals = मूल्यान्विताः (4-3-1-1)

Causative = प्रयोजक-प्रक्रिया / णिच्-प्रक्रिया

Comparative Degree = तरभावः

Conjunction =  संयोजकम्

Consonant = व्यञ्जनम्

Declensions = शब्दरूपाणि

Dual = द्विवचनम्

Etymology = व्युत्पत्तिः (7-4)

Feminine = स्त्रीलिङ्गि (See Para 2-3)

Future Tense = भविष्यत्कालः (8-4-4)

Gender = लिङ्गम्

Grammar = व्याकरणम्

Imperative Mood = आज्ञार्थः लोट्-लकारः (8-5-1)

Interjection = उद्गारवाचकम्

Interrogative = प्रश्नार्थकम् (8-9)

Language = भाषा

Letter = अक्षरम्

Masculine = पुँल्लिङ्गि (See Para 2-3)

Mood = अर्थः

Neuter = नपुंसकलिङ्गि (See Para 2-3)

Noun = नाम (See Para 2)

Number = वचनम् (4-2-4)

Number = संख्या

Numeral = अङ्कः

Numerical adjective = संख्यावाचकविशेषणम् (4-3)

Ordinal Number = क्रमवाचका संख्या (4-3-3-2)

Parts of Speech = वाक्पदानि (See Para 1)

Past Tense = भूतकालः (8-4-3)

Plural = बहुवचनम्

Potential Mood = विध्यर्थः विधिलिङ्-लकारः

Prefix = उपसर्गः

Preposition = पूर्ववर्ति

Present Tense = वर्तमानकालः लट्-लकारः

Pronoun = सर्वनाम

Root form of Words (Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives) = प्रातिपदिकम्

Singular एकवचनम्

Suffix = प्रत्ययः

  • Having Case-suffixes = सुबन्तानि (See Para 2-1)
  • Having Verbal suffixes = तिङन्तानि (See Para 8)
  • Having suffixes making Verbal Derivatives = कृदन्तानि,
  • Having suffixes which have dropped off = लुप्तप्रत्ययानि

Superlative Degree = तमभावः

Syllable = वर्णः

Syntax = अन्वयः

Tense = कालः

Verb = क्रियापदम् or तिङन्तं पदम्

Verbal Root = धातुः

Vowel = स्वरः

Word = शब्दः

Word-formation = पदसिद्धिः (6-3)

*** End of Alphabetical Index, Subject to updating ***

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Parts 8 and 9

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Parts 8 and 9

व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः – अष्टमनवम-(८, ९)-परिच्छेदौ

  1. Verbs = क्रियापदानि
  • (8-1) Verbs as used in sentences are actually verb-forms क्रियापदरूपाणि obtained by conjugation of verbal roots.
  • (8-2) In English, verbal roots are connoted by their infinitives, e.g. to go, to walk, to eat, etc.
  • (8-3) In Sanskrit verbal roots are called as धातु-s. As mentioned at (6-2-2), क्रियापदानि are क्रियापदरूपाणि obtained by affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s.
  • (8-4) In English verbs in a sentence are verbal forms in different tenses and moods.
    • (8-4-1) In English there are four subtypes of all three tenses such as Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present perfect and Present Perfect Continuous.
    • (8-4-2) In Sanskrit Present Tense is of only one type, called as वर्तमानकालः or लट्-लकारः
      • (8-4-2-1) English sentences of other subtypes of Present tense (and also of subtypes of other tenses) can be appropriately translated into Sanskrit by use of verbal derivatives i.e. कृदन्त-s or धातुसाधितानि e.g. ‘He is going’ = सः गच्छन् अस्ति He has gone = सः गतवान्
      • (8-4-2-2) The Perfect Continuous subtype has a sense of repetitiveness of the action. In Sanskrit repetitiveness of action is treated as a specific process and the verbal root itself is modified by यङ्-प्रक्रिया.
      • (8-4-2-3) There are some 12 प्रक्रिया-s whereby the verbal root itself is modified and one gets प्रकृतधातु-s. Some commonly used प्रक्रिया-s are –
        • (8-4-2-3-1) Causative प्रयोजक-प्रक्रिया / णिच्-प्रक्रिया
        • (8-4-2-3-2) Change of voice भावकर्मणि-प्रक्रिया
        • (8-4-2-3-3) Desiderative सन्-प्रक्रिया
    • (8-4-3) In Sanskrit Past Tense भूतकालः is of three types,
      • (8-4-3-1) अनद्यतनभूतकालः (= not as of today) or लङ्-लकारः
      • (8-4-3-2) परोक्षभूतकालः (= time not seen by the narrator) or लिट्-लकारः
      • (8-4-3-3) प्रथमभूतकालः (= general) or लुङ्-लकारः
    • (8-4-4) In Sanskrit Future Tense भविष्यत्कालः is also of three types
      • (8-4-4-1) द्वितीयभविष्यः or लृट्-लकारः
      • (8-4-4-2) सम्भावनार्थे or लृङ्-लकारः
      • (8-4-4-3) अनद्यतनभविष्यः or लुट्-लकारः
  • (8-5) In English only Imperative mood does not require verbal auxiliary. But it is valid with subjects only of second person
    • (8-5-1) In Sanskrit not only that Imperative mood आज्ञार्थ or लोट्-लकारः does not require verbal auxiliary, there are तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to be affixed to धातु-s to get nine क्रियापदानि or क्रियापदरूपाणि with subject-words of all three persons पुरुष-s and all three numbers वचन-s.
    • (8-5-2) In sanskrit क्रियापदानि or क्रियापदरूपाणि in आज्ञार्थ or लोट्-लकारः can be obtained also for modified verbal roots i.e. for प्रकृतधातु-s.
  • (8-6) In English constructing sentences in other moods requires use of verbal auxiliaries.
    • (8-6-1) Potential mood e.g. ‘He may go’ or ‘He might go’
    • (8-6-2) Advocative mood e.g. ‘He should go’
    • (8-6-3) Assertive mood e.g. ‘He would go’
    • (8-6-4) Compulsive mood e.g. ‘He must go’
    • (8-6-5) Capability mood e.g. ‘He can go’
    • (8-6-6) Suggestive mood e.g. ‘He could go’
  • (8-7) In Sanskrit तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s would  be affixed to धातु-s and to प्रकृतधातु-s to get nine क्रियापदानि or क्रियापदरूपाणि each,
    • (8-7-1) in Potential mood विध्यर्थ or विधिलिङ्-लकारः
    • (8-7-2) in Benedictine mood आशीर्वादार्थः or आशीर्लिङ्-लकारः
  • (8-8) in Sanskrit, one would use कृदन्त-s
    • (8-8-1) For Advocative mood, with अनीयर्-प्रत्यय e.g. ‘One should meditate on the feet of the Lord of Glory’ श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम्.
    • (8-8-2) For Compulsive mood, in Sanskrit, one would use कृदन्त-s with तव्यत्-प्रत्यय e.g. ‘One must do service of one’s parents’ पित्रोः सेवा कर्तव्या
    • (8-8-3) For Capability and Suggestive moods, in Sanskrit, one would use क्रियापदरूपाणि of or an adjective like समर्थ्, alongwith the infinitive कृदन्त-s with तुमुन्-प्रत्यय e.g. ‘He can go’ = सः गन्तुं शक्नोति or सः गन्तुं समर्थः
  • (8-9) For transforming Affirmative sentences to Interrogative प्रश्नार्थकम्,
    • (8-9-1) in English one needs to
      • use an auxiliary verb सहाय्यकधातुः ‘to do’.
      • Also the words have to be in a specific order, called as ‘syntax’.
      • There needs to be the sign of interrogation or the question-mark ‘?’
    • (8-9-2) In Sanskrit, to transform an Affirmative sentence to Interrogative.
      • (8-9-2-1) just a change in intonation would do
      • (8-9-2-2) one may use an indeclinable अपि which needs to be at the beginning of the sentence
      • (8-9-2-3) one would use शब्दरूपाणि of interrogative pronoun किम् The shlokas at the beginning of eighth chapter in gItA become eminent example – किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम
      • (8-9-2-4) Sanskrit seems to presume that ‘He who understands, understands’ यो वेत्ति स वेत्ति. So
        • in Sanskrit, there is total freedom from syntax, but for some exceptions such as use of अपि as mentioned above
        • also, using signs of punctuation is not at all compulsory in Sanskrit. In fact one would appreciate that it would be unaesthetic to litter verses with signs of punctuation. Much of Sanskrit literature is in verses.

(9) Adverbs क्रियाविशेषणानि

  • (9-1) Whereas an adverb is an important Part of Speech in English, in Sanskrit there is no exact equivalent term. The word क्रियाविशेषणम् is more of a translation of ‘adverb’ but it is not a word mentioned in Sanskrit grammar.

***Contents will be updated as the thought proceeds.

— End of Part 9 —

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Paras 5, 6, 7

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Paras 5, 6, 7

व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः – पञ्चषष्ठसप्तम-(५, ६, ७)-परिच्छेदाः

  1. Prepositions –
  • (5-1) There is no Preposition as such in Sanskrit.
  • (5-2) In English Prepositions are of two types –
    • (5-2-1) Articles a, an, the
    • (5-2-2) Articles a and an are only for singular. Article the is used both for singular and plural.
    • (5-2-3) There are no Articles as such in Sanskrit.
    • (5-2-4) In Sanskrit the function of articles is served by वचन-wise declensions of nouns, pronouns and adjectives. In Sanskrit वचन-s are three – singular एकवचनम्, dual द्विवचनम् and plural बहुवचनम्
  • (5-3) In English there are also Prepositions such as – to, by, with, for, from, after, of, in, at, on, upon, above, under, underneath, beneath, till, until
  • (5-4) In Sanskrit, function of these Prepositions is served by
    • (5-4-1) case-suffixes known as विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s or सुप्-प्रत्यय-s
    • (5-4-2) some special suffixes as तः, पर्यन्तम् (= till, until, up to),
    • (5-4-3) some indeclinables such as सह, सार्धम्, समम्, अधस्, उपरि, नीचैः, पश्चात् (= after)
    • (5-4-4) some special prefixes as आ (= until, unto, up to) as in आमरणम्
  1. Prefixes = उपसर्गाः
  • (6-1) In गणपाठ 22 उपसर्गाः are enumerated to detail their mention in अष्टाध्यायी as प्रादयः (१।४।५८). One can consider them to be basically 20. They can be prefixed as a single prefix or as more than one prefixes together.
  • (6-2) There are Prefixes in English, e.g. describe, subscribe, prescribe, unsubscribe, etc. As in Sanskrit, in English also Prefixes are affixed as a single prefix (e.g. subscribe) or as more than one prefixes together (e.g. unsubscribe).
  1. Suffixes = प्रत्ययाः
  • (7-1) In English suffixes are
    • (7-1-1) for making plurals e.g. ball → balls, but radius → radii
    • (7-1-2) for making specific verb-forms and participles
      • (7-1-2-1) present tense, third person singular e.g. go → goes,
      • (7-1-2-2) gerunds, e.g. going
      • (7-1-2-3) past tense e.g. ask → asked, but go → went
      • (7-1-2-4) past passive participles e.g. ask → asked, but go → gone
      • (7-1-2-5) for agents of action e.g. do → doer
  • (7-2) In Sanskrit प्रत्ययाः suffixes are of three main categories
    • (7-2-1) सुप्-प्रत्ययाः – These are affixed to root-forms प्रातिपदिकानि of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to get word-forms शब्दरूपाणि. These are summarized by PaNini in an aphorism –  स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्॥ ४।१।२
      • This is to be deciphered as (1) सु (2) औ (3) जस् (4) अम् (5) औट् (6) शस् (7) टा (8) भ्यां (9) भिस् (10) ङे (11) भ्यां (12) भ्यस् (13) ङसि (14) भ्यां (15) भ्यस् (16) ङस् (17) ओस् (18) आं (19) ङि (20) ओस् (21) सुप्
      • It may be noted that the last one is सुप्. That is the logic behind calling these as सुप्-प्रत्ययाः.
    • (7-2-2) तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः – These are affixed to root-forms of verbs i.e. to धातु-s, to get verb-forms क्रियापदानि These are summarized by PaNini in an aphorism तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्ताऽतांझथासाथाम्ध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् ३।४।७८ Note the first one is तिप् and the last one is ङ्. That is the logic behind calling these suffixes as तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः
      • (7-2-2-1) in Past भूतकाल, Present वर्तमानकाल and Future भविष्यत्काल tenses
      • (7-2-2-2) in different moods such as Imperative Mood आज्ञार्थ, Potential Mood विध्यर्थ.
      • (7-2-2-3) In Sanskrit, by tenses and moods, there are 10 main types known as लकार-s
    • (7-2-3 कृत्-प्रत्ययाः – Using suffixes of this category, one gets verbal derivatives. In a book with the title कृत्-प्रत्ययविश्लेषण Dr. Gopabandhu Mishra has details of some 139 कृत्-प्रत्यय-s. One gets
      • (7-2-3-1) abstract nouns भाववाचकनामानि by employing some कृत्-प्रत्ययाः e.g. कृ → कृतिः, करणम्, आकारः,
      • (7-2-3-2) adjectives विशेषणानि by employing some कृत्-प्रत्ययाः e.g.
        • (7-2-3-2-1) By affixing a suffix called as शतृ-प्रत्यय e.g. कृ → कृत् (= doing), or By affixing a suffix called as शानच्-प्रत्यय e.g. क्रियमाण (= being done), English considered this as Active participle. But what one gets by affixing this suffix is a wholesome adjective and not just a participle. There is something similar in English also, e.g. To participate → participant
        • By affixing a suffix called as न्यत् (ण्यत्) or यत्-प्रत्यय e.g. कार्य (=doable), कर्तव्य (= what must be done), करणीय (= what should be done),
        • By affixing a suffix called as क्त-प्रत्यय e.g. कृत (= done) English considered this parallel to Past Passive participle in English. But what one gets by affixing this suffix is a wholesome adjective and not just a participle.
      • (7-2-3-3) adverbials by employing some कृत्-प्रत्ययाः e.g. कृ → कृत्वा (= after doing), संस्कृत्य (= after refining), कर्तुम् (= for doing)
  • (7-3) Word-formation पदसिद्धिः in Sanskrit is a very evolved thought. It is just like a large tree sprouting from a single seed but spreading with innumerable branches leaves, flowers, fruits and also the pollen inside a flower promoting growth of more number of plants. This happens by more and more variety of suffixes coming into play.
    • (7-3-1) तद्धित-प्रत्ययाः – Suffixes which help to form newer nouns, adjectives from known nouns, adjectives. There is something similar in English also, e.g. Quality गुणः → Qualitative गुणीय
      • (7-3-1-1) In Sanskrit there are processes defined for speaking of a lineage of five generations प्रपितामहः (great grandfather),पितामहः (grandfather), पिता (father), पुत्रः (son), पौत्रः (grandson), प्रपौत्रः (great grandson ? I am not sure, whether this is a valid word-formation in English)
      • (7-3-1-2) In Sanskrit one can speak of a whole week – प्रपरह्यः परह्यः (day before yesterday) ह्यः (yesterday) अद्य(today)  श्वः (tomorrow) परश्वः (day after tomorrow) प्रपरश्वः
      • Mentioned at (7-3-1-1) and (7-3-1-2) are not exactly examples of तद्धित-प्रत्ययाः. But they do explain various processes available for word-formation, to extend the reach of words, both behind and forward, from micro to macro.
      • It should be interesting to note that components of atom were taken note of at least 3500 years back, as is evidenced by the mention of अणोरणीयान् (= अणोः अणीयान्) समनुस्मरेद्यः See गीता 8-9. अणोः = of atom, अणीयाः = components of atom. As can be noted, अणीय is derived from, तद्धित of अणुः
      • In drawing an Organogram as also in drawing a family-tree, there is the concept of showing Parent-Child relations. तद्धित-प्रत्यय-concept in Sanskrit grammar not only addresses this but many large number of derivations and word-formations, e.g. द्रुपदः → द्रौपदी → द्रौपदेयाः
    • (7-3-2) Suffixes for forming feminines स्त्री-प्रत्ययाः
      • Indian Constitution considered राष्ट्रपति as the word equivalent to President. But राष्ट्रपति is a masculine word. When Shrimati Pratibha Patil became President, this designation राष्ट्रपति became a problem. It seems that enough thought had not been given in considering राष्ट्रपति to be the word equivalent to President. The word should have been राष्ट्राध्यक्षः (masculine) / राष्ट्राध्यक्षा (feminine)
      • In English also, Chairman has been a common designation. Then a term Chairperson was needed to be coined to make the term free from gender-bias.
    • (7-3-3) There is a large number of suffixes called as उणादयः Note, उणादि = उण्-आदि (= उण् &c.) → its plural उणादयः
  • (7-4) I think converse of word-formation is the study of genesis or etymology व्युत्पत्तिः of a word.

— End of Part 7 —

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes – Preface and Paras 1 to 4

Comparative Study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes

व्याकरणीयसंज्ञानां प्रक्रियाणांश्च तौलनिकोऽभ्यासः

Such study is important and useful to study a language भाषा such as संस्कृतम् with the medium माध्यमम् of another language, such as English. It has been my experience that people, who know English, may yet not be well-versed with Terminologies in English grammar. This would be a big hurdle, especially for learning a language like Sanskrit, which needs to be always grammatically correct.

Here is hence, my study of Grammatical Terminologies and Processes in संस्कृतम् and English.

I am left to wonder how extensive this study is going to be. But it is not proper to think of that at the beginning itself. However an internet search led me to A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, by Mahamahopadhyaya Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar, published by Oriental Institute Vadodara in 1961. The dictionary has 400+ pages. It is primarily explanation in English of terms in Sanskrit grammar.

I am planning that in my study, I would take into consideration a comparative study of grammars of both English and Sanskrit. So, I would compile notes which will cover grammatical views and constructs in both languages and also prepare alphabetical indexes of the Terminologies, both in English and Sanskrit.

There needs to be a starting point for such study. Since a language is primarily meaningful speech, let me start with →

1 Parts of Speech = वाक्पदानि

  • (1-1) In English grammar Parts of Speech are eight – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Preposition, Verb, Adverb, Conjunction, Interjection
    • (1-1-1) One would also find the eight parts of speech as – noun, verb, participle, article, pronoun, preposition, adverb, conjunction
    • (1-1-2) To my mind, these lists still miss out an auxiliary such as ‘no/not’ or an auxiliary such as ‘there’ as in ‘where there is a will, …’. As can be seen, these words ‘no/not’, ‘there’ cannot be categorized into any of the eight categories of Parts of Speech.
  • (1-2) By my analysis, in Sanskrit वाक्पदानि are four – सुबन्तानि, तिङन्तानि, कृदन्तानि, लुप्तप्रत्ययानि
    • (1-2-1) It is important to also note that in Sanskrit any word to be used in a sentence or in any utterance i.e. वाक्, must be a duly formatted word. The grammatical rule is अपदं न प्रयुञ्जीत meaning unformatted word is not to be used.
    • Words become formatted by affixing suffixes i.e. प्रत्ययाः These are discussed in Para 7.
  1. Nouns = नामानि
  • (2-1) In English Nouns usually do not change except
    • (2-1-1) when using their plural e.g. ball → balls, but radius → radii
  • (2-2) In Sanskrit Nouns have a root-form, called as प्रातिपदिकम्.
  • (2-3) Nouns have a gender लिङ्गम् e.g. boy is masculine पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम girl is feminine स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम and child is neuter नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम.
    • (2-3-1) In English, gender of the noun does not inflict any change in other part of speech.
    • (2-3-2) In Sanskrit gender of the adjective has to be the same as of the noun.
  • (2-4) In Sanskrit noun-words शब्दाः have declensions शब्दरूपाणि from their root-form i.e. प्रातिपदिकम् by affixing suffixes प्रत्ययाः as appropriate for gender लिङ्ग, case- विभक्ति and number वचन of the word.
  1. Pronouns = सर्वनामानि
  • (3-1) In गणपाठ 36 सर्वनामानि are enumerated to detail their mention in अष्टाध्यायी as सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (१।१।२६)
  • (3-2) suffixes प्रत्ययाः of pronouns are same as for nouns, except for variations in fourth-, fifth- and seventh-case singulars.
  1. Adjectives = विशेषणानि
  • (4-1) In English the adjectival words usually do not change. In Sanskrit adjectives also have root forms प्रातिपदिकानि which are declined by gender, number and case-suffixes.
    • (4-1-1) In English smart boy or smart girl, in Sanskrit चतुरः बालः but चतुरा बाला
    • (4-1-2) In English beautiful flower or beautiful flowers in Sanskrit सुन्दरं पुष्पम् but सुन्दराणि पुष्पाणि
    • (4-1-3) In English for good people or of good people in Sanskrit साधुभ्यः जनेभ्यः but साधूनां जनानाम्
  • (4-2) There are nominal, comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives.
    • (4-2-1) In English we have late, later, latest (but, good, better (than), (the) best)
    • (4-2-2) In Sanskrit, there are two styles
      • (4-2-2-1) with -तर/-तम suffixes for comparative and superlative degrees respectively.
      • (4-2-2-2) with -(ई)यस्/इष्ठ suffixes for comparative and superlative degrees respectively.
  • (4-3) Numbers संख्याः, numerals अङ्काः and numerical adjectives संख्यावाचकानि
    • (4-3-1) Numbers are Cardinals मूल्यान्विताः and ordinals क्रमवाचकाः
      • (4-3-1-1) in ‘ten boys’, the word ‘ten’ is a cardinal number, because it denotes a count or value. Grammatically, cardinal numbers are adjectival.
      • (4-3-1-2) in ‘first person’ the word ‘first’ is an ordinal number, because it denotes rank or place in a serial count. Grammatically, ordinal numbers are also adjectival.
    • (4-3-2) Being adjectival, in Sanskrit, there are root-forms प्रातिपदिकानि of all numbers and there are their declensions by gender, number and case-suffixes i.e. by affixing सुप्-प्रत्ययाः e.g
      • एकः बालः, एका बालिका, एकं फलम् with numerical adjective ‘one’, hence in singular, in all three genders and in first case
      • द्वौ बालौ, द्वे बालिके, द्वे फले – with numerical adjective ‘two’ hence in dual and in all three genders and in first case
      • चत्वारः बालाः, चतस्रः बालिकाः, चत्वारि फलानि – with numerical adjective ‘four’ hence in plural, in all three genders and in first case
      • एकस्मै बालाय, (= for one boy), masculine fourth case singular
      • द्वाभ्यां बालिकाभ्याम्,(= by two girls or for two girls or from two girls), feminine, third/fourth/fifth case, dual
      • चतुर्षु फलेषु (= in four fruits) neuter, seventh i.e. locative case, plural
      • Note, suffixes of singulars in fourth, fifth and seventh cases for numerical adjectives are similar to those of pronouns in all three genders.

— End of Para 4 —