What is गणपाठ ?

गणपाठः इति किम् ? What is गणपाठ ?

It has been on my mind that I should build up my own practice of writing my blogs in Sanskrit. But there should also be its English version. So, here I am attempting writing my thoughts first in Sanskrit followed by its English version. Nevertheless in English version I would prefer to write Sanskrit words in Devanagari. Somehow it has been my experience that the best of transliteration of Sanskrit words in Roman script may not ensure as correct a pronunciation.

(1) पाणिनेः अष्टाध्याय्यां बहुषु सूत्रेषु आदि-शब्दस्य प्रयोगेण किञ्चन अधिकं विवरणम् अभिप्रेतमस्ति | (English) In his अष्टाध्यायी, पाणिनि uses the word आदि, to indicate that much more detail is included.

(2) यथा, अस्ति सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि॥ १।१।२६ (काशिका-वृत्त्यां सर्वाऽदीनि सर्वनामानि १।१।२७) (English) For example there is a सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि॥ (१।१।२६) (which is quoted in काशिका-वृत्ति somewhat differently as सर्वाऽदीनि सर्वनामानि (१।१।२७)

(3) “सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि” अस्मिन् सूत्रे सर्वेति सर्वनाम्नः आरभ्य यानि सर्वाणि सर्वनामानि, तानि सर्वाणि | कानि तानि ? तानि गणपाठे विवृतानि | गणः इति समुच्चयः | गणपाठे अनेकानां गणानां विवरणम् | (English) In the aphorism सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि the word सर्वादीनि means starting with सर्व and the word सर्वनामानि means pronouns. So सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि means all pronouns starting with सर्व. Which are they ? They are detailed in गणपाठ. गण means a set. In गणपाठ there are details of many sets.

(4) गणपाठे सर्वनाम्नां विवरणम् पञ्चोपगणेषु – (1) सर्व विश्व उभ उभय डतर डतम अन्य अन्यतर इतर त्वत् त्व नेम सम सिम । (एतेषां व्यक्तिवैशिष्ट्यं नास्ति |) (2) पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम्। (3) स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम्। (4) अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः। (5) त्यद् तद् यद् एतद् इदम् अदस् एक द्वि युष्मद् अस्मद् भवतु किम् | (एतेषां व्यक्तिवैशिष्ट्यं वर्तते |) (English) In गणपाठ, 36 pronouns are listed in five sub-groups (1) 14 as listed on the left are not person-specific (2) पूर्व पर अवर दक्षिण उत्तर अपर अधर These 7 are related to व्यवस्थायाम् state or direction, when used not as nouns असंज्ञायाम् (3) स्वम् अज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् This “self” when used not as name of ज्ञातिधन (4) अन्तरं and बहिर् when used as योग or उपसंख्यान  (5) 12 as listed in Sanskrit are person-specific

(5) अन्येऽपि केचन गणाः सामान्योपयोगिनः यथा

प्रादिः गणः | अस्मिन् गणे उपसर्गाः विवृताः, ये प्रायः धातुभिः सह प्रयुज्यन्ते | तेन कृदन्तैः सहापि | प्रादयः१.४.५८ इत्यस्मिन् सूत्रे – प्र परा अप सम् अनु अव निस् निर् दुस् दुर् वि आङ् नि अधि अपि अति सु उत् अभि प्रति परि उप (English) There are some other गण-s, which would be of more common interest and use, e.g. the गण called as प्रादिः In this गण, one finds 22 prefixes used with verbal roots, in turn with words derived from verbal roots. They should be considered to be 20 only, since निस् and निर् (also दुस् and दुर्) are different forms of the same prefix.

(6) http://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9F%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%80-%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A0%E0%A4%83 अत्रतः प्रापणीये गणपाठे 241 गणाः विवृताः सन्ति | (English) In गणपाठ obtainable from the given link, there are 241 गण-s detailed.

(7) गणपाठः पाणिनिना एव रचितं अष्टाध्याय्याः परिशिष्टमेव | धातुपाठोऽपि कश्चित् गणपाठः इवैव धातूनां विषये | (English) गणपाठ composed by पाणिनि himself serves as an Annexure of अष्टाध्यायी. As such धातुपाठ is also a गणपाठ wherein there is compilation of धातु-s.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

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2 thoughts on “What is गणपाठ ?

  1. Many thanks for the helpful info, and for the insight that धातुपाठ is also a गणपाठ. However it appears that धातुपाठ also contains meanings for the धातुs (as per an earlier interesting article of yours, re नृत् धातुपाठ)

    It also appears that both गणपाठ and धातुपाठ were around in some form before पाणिनि

    Thanks again

    • नमस्ते श्रीमन् हरमन्दरसिंह-महोदय !
      Yes, धातुपाठ does contains meanings for the धातुs ! If meanings of all words in every गण in गणपाठ were to be given, गणपाठ would have become a dictionary. Certainly पाणिनि had no idea of compiling a dictionary. It was yet logical to give meanings of धातु-s in धातुपाठ, because there are many धातु-s, which have forms as per more than one धातु-गण-s. and in many cases same धातु has different meaning in different गण.

      Also धातुपाठ is certainly a गणपाठ, because PaNini’s arrangement of धातु-s in धातुपाठ is by putting all धातु-s of one धातु-गण together.

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