Study of अव्ययप्रकरणम्

Study of अव्ययप्रकरणम्

पाणिनिसूत्रम् – स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (१-१-३७)

In treatises on grammar, especially सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित there is a chapter on indeclinables अव्ययप्रकरणम्, which mentions 6 aphorisms सूत्राणि from अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि

    1. (१-१-३७) स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्
    2. (१-१-३८) तद्धिताश्चासर्वविभक्तिः
    3. (१-१-३९) कृन्मेजन्तः
    4. (१-१-४०) क्त्वातोनुन्कसुनः
    5. (१-१-४१) अव्ययीभावश्च
    6. (२-४-८२) अव्ययादाप्सुपः

The chapter in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराजाचार्य seems to omit (2).
In अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि one would find a few other aphorisms where there seems to be reference to अव्ययानि the indeclinables. I wonder why these aphorisms are not considered in the chapter अव्ययप्रकरणम्.

  • (१-४-६७) पुरोऽव्ययम् and in continuation of this (१-४-६८) अस्तं च
  • (२-१-६) अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासंप्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथा ऽऽ नुपूर्व्ययौगसादृश्यसंपत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु ।
  • (२-२-१९) उपपदमतिङ् especially considering the next (२-२-२०) अमैवाव्ययेन ।
    • उपपदमतिङ् is actually उपपदम् अतिङ् meaning उपपदम् has no तिङ्. Here, तिङ् means the set of all suffixes which make verbs क्रियापदानि from verbal roots धातवः

Coming to the 6 aphorisms referred to in the अव्ययप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, भट्टोजी दीक्षिताचार्य gives extensive detailing of each aphorism.

(१-१-३७) स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् is detailed as –

  1. स्वरादयो निपाताश्चाव्ययसंज्ञाः स्युः । This definition itself identifies two types of अव्ययानि – स्वरादयः those starting with स्वर् and those that are निपाताः
  2. Among स्वरादयः are listed – स्वर् heaven, अन्तर् midst, प्रातर् ‘in the morning’, पुनर् again, सनुतर् ‘in concealment’, उच्चैस् high, नीचैस् low, शनैस् slowly, ऋधक् rightly, ऋते except, युगपत् ‘at once’, आरात् ‘far near’, पृथक् apart, ह्यस् yesterday, श्वस् tomorrow, दिवा ‘by day’, रात्रौ ‘in the night’, सायम् ‘at eve’, चिरम् ‘for a long time’, मनाक् ‘a little’, ईषत् ‘a little’, जोषम् silently, तूष्णीम् silent, बहिस् outside, अवस् outside, समया near, निकषा near, स्वयम् ‘of oneself’, वृथा ‘in vain’, नक्तम् ‘at night’, नञ् not, हेतौ ‘by reason of’, इद्धा truly, अद्धा evidently, सामि half, वत् like, (ब्राह्मणवत्, क्षत्रियवत्) सना perpetually, सनत् perpetually, सनात् perpetually, उपधा divided, तिरस् crookedly, अन्तरा ‘without, except’, अन्तरेण ‘without, except’, ज्योक् quickly, कम् ‘water, ease’, शम् ease, सहसा hastily, विना without, नाना various, स्वस्ति ‘greetings’, स्वधा (interjection), अलम् enough, वषट् (interjection), श्रौषट् (interjection), वौषट् (interjection), अन्यत् otherwise, अस्ति existence, उपांशु privately, क्षमा ‘patience, pardon’, विहावसा ‘aloft, in the air’, दोषा ‘in the evening’, मृषा falsely, मिथ्या falsely, मुधा ‘in vain’, पुरा formerly, मिथो mutually, मिथस् mutually, प्रायस्’ often, frequently’, मुहुस् repeatedly, प्रवाहुकम् ‘at the same time’, प्रवाहिका ‘at the same time’, आर्यहलम् violently, अभीक्ष्णम् repeatedly, साकम् with, सार्धम् with, नमस् ‘with reverence’, हिरुक् without, धिक् ‘fie !’, अम् quickly, आम् ‘indeed, yes’, प्रताम् ‘with fatigue’, प्रशान् alike, प्रतान् widely, मा ‘do not’, माङ् ‘do not’, । आकृतिगणोऽयम् ।। This is a list of 85 indeclinable of a set called as आकृतिगण.
  3. English meanings are from article # 399 in James Ballentyne’s book on  लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.
  4. I downloaded from the internet सिद्धान्तकौमुदी with commentaries called as (1) तत्त्वबोधिनीव्याख्या by ज्ञानेन्द्र सरस्वती and (2) सुबोधिनीव्याख्या by जयकृष्ण. There, the commentaries give meanings and examples of usage of the indeclinables. It is also mentioned, “आकृतिगण इति । तेन अन्येऽपि ज्ञेयाः । meaning, “This is आकृतिगण. By this others also should be understood.” So the list of 85 is not comprehensive of all आकृतिगण-अव्ययानि. For example, (ब्राह्मणवत्, क्षत्रियवत्) are examples of indeclinables that can be obtained by using वत् as a suffix. This suffix can be affixed to many, many nouns. That would make infinite number of अव्ययानि.
  5. Further list – च and, वा or, ह (an expletive), अह (vocative particle), एव ‘only, exactly’, एवम् ‘so, thus’, नूनम् certainly, शश्वत् continually, युगपत् at once, भूयस् ‘repeatedly, again’, कूपत् excellently, कुवित abundantly, नेत् if, चेत् if, चण् if (the ण् is indicatory), कच्चित् ‘what if ?’, किञ्चित् , यत्र where, नह no, हन्त ‘ah !’, माकिः ‘do not’, माकीम् ‘do not’, नकिः ‘do not’, आकिम् indeed, माङ् not, नञ् not, यावत् ‘as much as’, तावत् ‘so much’, त्वै perhaps, द्वै perhaps, रै (disrespectful interjection), श्रौषट्, वौषट्, स्वाहा ‘oblation to Gods’, स्वधा, तुम् thouing, तथाहि thus, खलु certainly, किल indeed, अथो now, अथ ‘now, auspicious initiative’, सुष्ठु excellent, स्म (attached to present tense, gives past meaning), आदह ‘fie !’। Here total 44 अव्यय-s.
  6. There are some repetitions in the first list of 85 and the चादि-list of 44 अव्यय-s. The repetitions are underlined
  7. There is a note at the end of आदह – उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वररूपकाश्च ।
  8. There is a further list which contains all vowels also, listed as अव्यय-s. The list is – अवदत्तम्, अहंयुः, अस्तिक्षीरा, अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, पशु, शुकम्, यथाकथाच, पाट्, प्याट्, अङ्ग, है, हे, भोः, अये, द्म, विषु, एकपदे, युत्, आतः ।
  9. Here अवदत्तम्, अहंयुः, अस्तिक्षीरा, are examples.
  10. Here total 25 अव्यय-s.
  11. There is a note here – चादिरप्याकृतिगणः । This note suggests that the list started in the previous bullet starting from च and ending at आतः here, is also to be considered as आकृतिगण.
  12. Total number of अव्यय-s in आकृतिगण thus become 85 + 44 – 6 +25 = 148
  13. The mention of आकृतिगणः raises a thought whether there are other गण-s also. If yes, which are they and which अव्यय-s would make those lists ?
  14. This सूत्रम् also mentions निपाताः. Do above lists include निपाताः ? If not, which are अव्यय-s that are निपाताः ?
  15. In आशुबोध-व्याकरणम् authored by श्रीतारानाथ तर्कवाचस्पति भट्टाचार्य (I had it downloaded from the internet), there is a सूत्रम् – अद्रव्यवाचिनश्चादयो निपाताः The mention चादयः suggests that the अव्यय-s from च, वा,… are निपाताः.
  16. James Ballentyne also mentions the चादयः अव्ययानि as निपाताः
  17. English meanings mentioned above from book of James Ballentyne may not be the most appropriate meanings. In “Student’s Guide to Sanskrit Composition” by Shri. V. S Apte, some 58-odd अव्ययानि have been discussed bringing forth how a particular indeclinable is used with different shades of meaning, all this with examples from Sanskrit literature.

I am tempted to dwell on that study before proceeding with other five सूत्र-s in the अव्ययप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. I shall attempt that in further parts.

शुभमस्तु
-o-O-o-
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3 thoughts on “Study of अव्ययप्रकरणम्

  1. The chapter in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराजाचार्य seems to omit (2).
    In अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि one would find a few other aphorisms where there seems to be reference to अव्ययानि the indeclinables. I wonder why these aphorisms are not considered in the chapter अव्ययप्रकरणम्.

    It is simply because अव्ययप्रकरण is a topic in which all the सूत्र-s defining the technical terms अव्यय-s are dealt with and explaining the meaning is discussed in brief and not all the rules using this this technical terms अव्यय which are dealt with in different topics in detail according to the topic and purpose of the सूत्र-s. The order in अष्टाध्यायी keeps the sequence that the words needed in the sequence of the rules could be easily be taken from the previous ones to complete the meaning, in order to avoid repetition of them in each rules. That is the economy of सूत्र style. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी aims at the derivation of the forms according to the topics and hence the purpose is different that makes the sequence of the सूत्र-s according to his purpose at hand.

    All of your question will be answered if you study the सूत्र-s in the light of Grammar and not simply with dictionary meaning. Study with Dictionary meaning and translations, will often lead to many confusions, than clearing them or mostly arrive at wrong conclusions or misunderstandings.

    • नमस्ते भट-महोदय ! My query was in fact in the context of the chapters अव्ययप्रकरणम् whether in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी or लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and not about अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि and the economy of सूत्र-s there. The economy of सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि is definitely to be appreciated. But why economy in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी ? Well लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी may have some economy, because it is लघु. Regards, S. L. Abhyankar

      • I also replied in the context of n सिद्धान्तकौमुदी or लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and not about अष्टाध्यायी. The scheme is different and the output is also different. All the सूत्र-s there are arranged by topics as planned by Bhattoji Dikshita and there is nothing left out of the scheme than needed as far as I am concerned and I have studied the whole of it.

        As far as I am concerned all the topics are in themselves complete in a order planned by Bhattoji Dikshita and covers all the sUtra-s omitting those only those appeared and commented in relation to earlier topics. Otherwise each topic is complete.

        If you ask specific question, than finding fault with SK, you will get reply certainly after considering what the sUtra deals with and why it is left out in any topic after covering the topic up to that in the order designed by Bhattoji. It keeps the economy not to repeat the comments every time as he expects the teachers and readers to follow the order he has designed. Some times he retakes, but without any more comments. Most economy is maintained in his work, even though rearranging the Ashtadhyayi sUtra-s in different topics may have to be retaken, a second time as some deal with different things in a sUtra.

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