Study of अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Study of अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

(पाणिनि-सूत्र 6-1-101 i.e. Chapter 6, Quarter 1, No. 101)


Reason for studying this सूत्र arose when studying स्वर-संधि-s such as

  • अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ
  • इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई
  • उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ
  • ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ
  • लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ

Mathematically these are 20 संधि-s. But just three words अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः summarize them. That is the genius of पाणिनी !


अक: सवर्णे दीर्घः

  • अक: = (in case of) अक् i.e. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ऋ-दीर्घ, लृ, लृ-दीर्घ,
    • derived from two aphorisms from a set of सूत्र-s known as शिवसूत्र-s viz.
      • अ इ उ ण्
      • ऋ लृ क्
      • अक् = starting from अ until one comes to क्. Hence अक् = अ इ उ ऋ लृ
      • अक् is a compound word सामासिक-शब्द of the type समाहार-द्वंद्व
      • Its deciphering विग्रह becomes – अ च इ च उ च रु च लृ च एतेषां समाहारः अक् इति
      • अक: then is sixth case singular षष्ठी विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अक्
      • Commentators also write “६|१” to denote ‘sixth case singular’.
  • सवर्णे = when followed by sound वर्ण of its own class i.e.
    • अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ
    • इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई
    • उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ
    • ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ
    • लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ
    • सवर्णे = in the case of all these 20 permutations
  • दीर्घः = (the resultant sound is) long i.e. as detailed in Tables 1, 2 and 3 and notes 1 and 2 below Table 3.

Table 1

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

आ for the combinations अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ

अ + अ = आ

अ + आ = आ

आ + अ = आ

आ + आ = आ

कृष्ण + अर्जुन = कृष्णार्जुन

देव + आलय = देवालय

पूजा + अर्चन = पूजार्चन

विद्या + आलय = विद्यालय

Table 2

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

ई for the combinations इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई

इ + इ = ई

इ + ई = ई

ई + इ = ई

ई + ई = ई

पति + इच्छा = पतीच्छा

कवि + ईश्वर = कवीश्वर

देवी + इच्छा = देवीच्छा

लक्ष्मी + ईश्वर = लक्ष्मीश्वर

Table 3

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

ऊ for the combinations उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ

उ + उ = ऊ

उ + ऊ = ऊ

ऊ + उ = ऊ

ऊ + ऊ = ऊ

सु + उक्त = सूक्त

भानु + ऊर्जा = भानूर्जा

चमू + उन्नति = चमून्नति

चमू + ऊर्ध्व = चमूर्ध्व

Table 4

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

ऋ-दीर्घ for the combinations ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ + ऋ = ऋ-दीर्घ

पितृ + ऋण = पितॄण and मातृ + ऋण = मातॄण

ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ = ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ = ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ = ऋ-दीर्घ

There are hardly any examples of this type. But thanks to Dr. Sampadanand Mishra of Aravindashram Puduchchery for suggesting examples पितृ + ऋण = पितॄण and मातृ + ऋण = मातॄण

Table 5

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

लृ-दीर्घ for the combinations लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ

लृ + लृ = -दीर्घ

लृ + लृ-दीर्घ = -दीर्घ

लृ + लृ-दीर्घ + = लृ-दीर्घ

लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ = लृ-दीर्घ

There are hardly any examples of this type also.
All these संधि-s qualifying अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः also qualify conformance to एकः पूर्व-परयोः (पाणिनि-सूत्र 6-1-84) because there is one एकः resultant sound in place of the two original sounds at पूर्व and पर positions i.e. at the end of first पूर्व component and at the beginning of second पर component.

-o-O-o-

Post Script –

Dr. Avinash Sathaye of University of Kentucky has sent a very succinct comment –

“.. The कौमुदी has a different and longer discussion of the concept of सवर्ण. It points out that to get proper meaning of this सूत्र you need to invoke the अनुवृत्ति of the word अचि. In other words only vowel सवर्ण are allowed here.
That is the only way to get the list of
सवर्ण  that you gave 🙂

In fact, they suggested a shorter and better alternative अकोऽकि दीर्घः ।…”

Really अकोऽकि दीर्घः = अकः अकि  दीर्घः keeps the whole operation of अक् focused on अक् and yet it details

  • what happens ‘of’ अक् (sixth case, singular)
  • in the event of अक्  (seventh case, singular)
  • Beautiful !
Thanks Dr. Sathaye !
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13 thoughts on “Study of अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

  1. It is not “अको सवर्णे दीर्घः”, it is “अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः”. Please try to learn elementary rules of sandhis before rushing to blog on sandhis.

      • नमो नमः श्रीमन् भट-महोदय !
        दृश्यते भवता गृहीतमस्ति यत् मया सिद्धान्त-कौमुद्य: वा लघु-सिद्धान्त-कौमुद्य: अवलोकनमपि न कृतम् | एतावत्तु जानामि यत् सिद्धान्त-कौमुद्यां वा लघु-सिद्धान्त-कौमुद्यां सूत्राणि विषयानुसारेण विवृतानि | तद्विधे विवरणे “अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः”-इति सूत्रस्य विवरणं “संधि”-प्रकरणे अस्ति एतदपि सविवेकमेव | तथापि कानि कानि सूत्राणि विविधेषु विषयेषु संबद्धानि भवन्ति एतदपि सविवेकमेव | किमपि सूत्रं कतिपयानां विषयाणां विवरणे उद्धृतमस्ति तस्यापि संदर्भाः कुत्रापि संकलिताः वा ?

  2. what happens ‘of’ अक् (sixth case, singular)
    in the event of अक् (seventh case, singular)
    Beautiful !

    ============

    Very beautiful indeed the language of Panini but translating them into rudimentary English sacrificing its original technical meaning intended by Panini dosn’t add any beauty.

    As Avinash has suggested, this rule has been discussed at length in the traditionAL BASIC readers and this is the practical end result he has given.

    The language of Panini has been well defined technically and even the use of the case endings in these sUtra-s are restricted to the explained meaning and beyond the common use in the beginner’s language. Hence it is beautiful when the rules are interpreted following the explanations by himself for each word and case-endings used in the technical sense.

    All the three terms used in this sUtra are having well-defined technical meaning including the case endings.

    • All the three terms used in this sUtra are having well-defined technical meaning including the case endings.

      For reference’s sake, these meanings are defined as follows:

      1.1.9 तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम्
      Speech sounds with the same articulatory effort are called सवर्ण “homogeneous”;

      1.1.10 नाज्झलौ
      but vowels and consonants are not (homogeneous with each other).

      1.1.71 आदिरन्त्येन सहेता
      An initial letter mentioned with a final technical letter (इत्) refers to all of the sounds between them. (This defines the प्रत्याहार and allows us to interpret अक् correctly.)

      1.1.49 षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा
      Case 6 is connected with the word स्थाने “in the place of.” (Technical meaning of case 6.)

      1.1.50 स्थाने ऽन्तरतमः
      A substitute should be the nearest (possible match to what it replaces).

      1.1.66 तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य
      (When a grammar rule is) mentioned with a word in case 7, (the operation applies to) the term right before (the word in case 7).

      1.1.67 तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य
      (When a grammar rule is) mentioned with a word in case 5, (the operation applies to) the term right after (the word in case 5).

      1.1.69 अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः
      When they are not प्रत्यय terms, the अण् letters (अ इ उ ऋ लृ ए ओ ऐ औ ह य व र ल — note the use of the second ण् instead of the first, which would give us only अ इ उ . Thanks to S. D. Joshi for this observation) and letters with indicatory उ stand for themselves and all homogeneous letters. (This allows अक् to refer to आ, ई, ऊ, and so on.)

      1.2.27 ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः
      Vowels as long as उ are called ह्रस्व, vowels as long as ऊ are called दीर्घ, and vowels as long as ऊ३ are called प्लुत.

      1.2.28 अचश्च
      These terms are substituted (only) for vowels.

      1.4.109 परः संसिकर्षः संहिता
      Extremely close contact (of sounds) is called संहिता “continuous (utterance)”.

      अचि comes from 6.1.78 (इको यणचि) : यण् letters (semivowels) are substituted for the इक् letters when अच् letters (vowels) follow.

      Technically we should also consider 6.1.72 संहितायाम् (“in continuous utterance”) as an अधिकार. S. M. Katre says पररूपम् “the second form” carries over by अनुवृत्ति from 6.1.94, but I am less sure about this on grounds of सामर्थ्य.

      This gives us a full rule like so:

      In continuous utterance (संहितायाम्) an अक् vowel and the homogeneous vowel that follows it (अकः सवर्णे (अचि)) are both replaced (पूर्वपयोः) by a single (एकः) long (दीर्घ) vowel (ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः) homogeneous to both (स्थाने ऽन्तरतमः)

      I think I have considered all of the rules that inform this rule. Given all of the rules I had to consider, it would be embarrassing to have left one out!

      That aside, it is encouraging and exciting to see that somebody else is studying the Ashtadhyayi too! Best of luck to both of us as we try to understand this magnificent text.

      • नमो नमः श्रीमन् अरुण-महोदय !
        भवता “अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः”-इति सूत्रस्य स्पष्टीकरणे अन्येषां चतुर्दश-तावत् सूत्राणां विवरणं प्रदत्तम् ! धन्यवादाः !!

      • Better not to misunderstand any great technical text, in our enthusiasm to understand it EASILY and simplified at the cost of sacrificing its technical aspect for which it is popular.

      • तथापि कानि कानि सूत्राणि विविधेषु विषयेषु संबद्धानि भवन्ति एतदपि सविवेकमेव | किमपि सूत्रं कतिपयानां विषयाणां विवरणे उद्धृतमस्ति तस्यापि संदर्भाः कुत्रापि संकलिताः वा ?

        Your question is not clear. Please elucidate.

  3. अकोऽकि दीर्घः = अकः अकि दीर्घः keeps the whole operation of अक् focused on अक् and yet it details

    what happens ‘of’ अक् (sixth case, singular)

    It is not sixth case, but genitive case pancamI used here in the technical sense: after the ak – अकः – meaning when the vowels included in the technical term अक्, are followed by,
    अकि – is saptamI case singular used in the sense that when the vowels included in the same अक् pratyahara follow (the prescription goes to the preceding letter)

    Here the use of saptamI is over ruled by the genitive pancamI. Hence the total meaning would be when the ak vowels are followed by ak vowels qualified as savarNa. = having similar articular points and articulation manner of pronunciation (both are called sthana and prayatna) (ekaH pUrvaparayoH) both preceding and the following vowels will have a common substitute of the दीर्घः the long vowel (of the same category),

    This is the precise meaning of the suTRA even in its modified abridged version.
    =================

    Theoretically there is no long vowel for लृ at all in the classical language and even the shorter one is used in DhatupAtha as it markers and available in only in one word: klRptAh

    लृ-दीर्घ for the combinations लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ

    लृ + लृ = -दीर्घ

    लृ + लृ-दीर्घ = -दीर्घ

    लृ + लृ-दीर्घ + = लृ-दीर्घ

    लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ = लृ-दीर्घ

    Hence the table is not of any use. Technically, in case two short vowels लृ follow it is replaced by ऋ and for the purpose of grammatical operation, these two are considered as savarNa-s and in those cases, they are optionally substituted by their respective short vowels also instead of long ऋ..

  4. As a last note I have not come across the word पाणिनी during my carrier, but only पाणिनिः – which is explained as पणिनस्य गोत्रापत्यम् – पाणिनिः।

    If you have come across any source reliable for the usage, please provide it.

    • नमो नमः श्रीमन् “भट”-महोदय ! My thinking is, when the word is a part of an English sentence, it would be mostly pronounced as पाणिनी and hence better be so written. सस्नेहम्, अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

      • I don’t think it in any way better to distort the name of a person popular for the establishment of a tradition of Grammar any common person, in any language according to what we pronounce it. Particularly the the gotra- name to which he belongs. English is not popular for writing what we pronounce, but Devanagari script is phonological script so far as I can understand and could be use the least to write a name distorted.

        Written in English using Roman alphabet, which is not convenient for represent for non-English words, Panini – could be read as पाणिनी, पणिनी, पणिनी or पाणीनी whatever one want to read the name of the popular author of अष्टाध्यायी. Even if it is proper for writing any blog in any language on any topic; but it could not be a proper way to distort in the blog dedicated to the study of अष्टाध्यायी itself, the title properly suggests the topic of the blog. This is my sincere opinion. Even in English writings of standard articles, they use IPA encoding, and use proper spelling for writing the popular words: Pāṇini and never distort it according to what they tend to pronounce the Sanskrit word. I don’t know why should we using a phonological alphabet should use it to distort the name one renowned Grammarian the world has ever known, to suit our needs of pronunciation. In writing English sentences, you can use Panini as the standard spelling for the name goes.

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