Study of अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Study of अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

(पाणिनि-सूत्र 6-1-101 i.e. Chapter 6, Quarter 1, No. 101)


Reason for studying this सूत्र arose when studying स्वर-संधि-s such as

  • अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ
  • इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई
  • उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ
  • ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ
  • लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ

Mathematically these are 20 संधि-s. But just three words अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः summarize them. That is the genius of पाणिनी !


अक: सवर्णे दीर्घः

  • अक: = (in case of) अक् i.e. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ऋ-दीर्घ, लृ, लृ-दीर्घ,
    • derived from two aphorisms from a set of सूत्र-s known as शिवसूत्र-s viz.
      • अ इ उ ण्
      • ऋ लृ क्
      • अक् = starting from अ until one comes to क्. Hence अक् = अ इ उ ऋ लृ
      • अक् is a compound word सामासिक-शब्द of the type समाहार-द्वंद्व
      • Its deciphering विग्रह becomes – अ च इ च उ च रु च लृ च एतेषां समाहारः अक् इति
      • अक: then is sixth case singular षष्ठी विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अक्
      • Commentators also write “६|१” to denote ‘sixth case singular’.
  • सवर्णे = when followed by sound वर्ण of its own class i.e.
    • अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ
    • इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई
    • उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ
    • ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ
    • लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ
    • सवर्णे = in the case of all these 20 permutations
  • दीर्घः = (the resultant sound is) long i.e. as detailed in Tables 1, 2 and 3 and notes 1 and 2 below Table 3.

Table 1

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

आ for the combinations अ + अ or अ + आ or आ + अ or आ + आ

अ + अ = आ

अ + आ = आ

आ + अ = आ

आ + आ = आ

कृष्ण + अर्जुन = कृष्णार्जुन

देव + आलय = देवालय

पूजा + अर्चन = पूजार्चन

विद्या + आलय = विद्यालय

Table 2

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

ई for the combinations इ + इ or इ + ई or ई + इ or ई + ई

इ + इ = ई

इ + ई = ई

ई + इ = ई

ई + ई = ई

पति + इच्छा = पतीच्छा

कवि + ईश्वर = कवीश्वर

देवी + इच्छा = देवीच्छा

लक्ष्मी + ईश्वर = लक्ष्मीश्वर

Table 3

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

ऊ for the combinations उ + उ or उ + ऊ or ऊ + उ or ऊ + ऊ

उ + उ = ऊ

उ + ऊ = ऊ

ऊ + उ = ऊ

ऊ + ऊ = ऊ

सु + उक्त = सूक्त

भानु + ऊर्जा = भानूर्जा

चमू + उन्नति = चमून्नति

चमू + ऊर्ध्व = चमूर्ध्व

Table 4

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

ऋ-दीर्घ for the combinations ऋ + ऋ or ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ or ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ + ऋ = ऋ-दीर्घ

पितृ + ऋण = पितॄण and मातृ + ऋण = मातॄण

ऋ + ऋ-दीर्घ = ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ = ऋ-दीर्घ

ऋ-दीर्घ + ऋ-दीर्घ = ऋ-दीर्घ

There are hardly any examples of this type. But thanks to Dr. Sampadanand Mishra of Aravindashram Puduchchery for suggesting examples पितृ + ऋण = पितॄण and मातृ + ऋण = मातॄण

Table 5

Examples of स्वर-संधि-s by अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः

लृ-दीर्घ for the combinations लृ + लृ or लृ + लृ-दीर्घ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ or लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ

लृ + लृ = -दीर्घ

लृ + लृ-दीर्घ = -दीर्घ

लृ + लृ-दीर्घ + = लृ-दीर्घ

लृ-दीर्घ + लृ-दीर्घ = लृ-दीर्घ

There are hardly any examples of this type also.
All these संधि-s qualifying अकः  सवर्णे दीर्घः also qualify conformance to एकः पूर्व-परयोः (पाणिनि-सूत्र 6-1-84) because there is one एकः resultant sound in place of the two original sounds at पूर्व and पर positions i.e. at the end of first पूर्व component and at the beginning of second पर component.

-o-O-o-

Post Script –

Dr. Avinash Sathaye of University of Kentucky has sent a very succinct comment –

“.. The कौमुदी has a different and longer discussion of the concept of सवर्ण. It points out that to get proper meaning of this सूत्र you need to invoke the अनुवृत्ति of the word अचि. In other words only vowel सवर्ण are allowed here.
That is the only way to get the list of
सवर्ण  that you gave 🙂

In fact, they suggested a shorter and better alternative अकोऽकि दीर्घः ।…”

Really अकोऽकि दीर्घः = अकः अकि  दीर्घः keeps the whole operation of अक् focused on अक् and yet it details

  • what happens ‘of’ अक् (sixth case, singular)
  • in the event of अक्  (seventh case, singular)
  • Beautiful !
Thanks Dr. Sathaye !
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