सूत्रम् १-१-१ वृद्धिरादैच् ।
संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा वृद्धिरादैच् = वृद्धिः आत्+ऐच् ।
वृद्धिः = This is a grammatical term संज्ञा. Here वृद्धिः suggests the greater weightage being the characteristics of the vowels.
- वृद्धिः is a noun derived from the verbal root वृध् (= to grow, to become larger, stronger, greater)
आदैच् = आत्+ऐच् ।
- आदैच् seems to be coined as a compounded masculine noun सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
- आत् च ऐच् च इति आदैच् । समाहार-द्वंद्वः ।
- आत् = The vowel आ. In the aphorisms here, singular vowel is given an ending त् to denote that it is to be understood all by itself.
- ऐच् = Vowels starting from ऐ and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending च् The शिवसूत्रम् under reference is ऐ औ च्. Hence ऐच् means the vowels ऐ and औ.
On the whole वृद्धिरादैच् means the vowels आ, ऐ and औ have the characteristics of being strong.
When analyzing meters of poetry, syllables of strong character would be counted with higher weightage. The सूत्रम् lends guidance also on analyzing syllables when analyzing meters of poetry.
सूत्रम् १-१-२ अदेङ् गुणः ।
संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा अदेङ् गुणः = अत्-एङ् गुणः ।
अदेङ् = अत्-एङ् ।
- अदेङ् seems to be coined as a compounded masculine noun सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
- अत् च एङ् च इति अदेङ् । समाहार-द्वंद्वः ।
- अत् = The vowel अ। In the aphorisms here, singular vowel is given an ending त् to denote that it is to be understood all by itself.
- एङ् = Vowels starting from ए and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending ङ् The शिवसूत्रम् under reference is ए ओ ङ् ।
गुणः = This is a grammatical term संज्ञा. Here गुणः suggests less weightage being the characteristics of the vowels, which are noted by अदेङ्.
- गुणः is first case singular (प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च) of masculine noun (पुल्लिङ्गि नाम) गुण.
- In Apte’s dictionary, 28 different meanings of the word गुणः are mentioned, One of these meanings is “A secondary element, a subordinate part (opposite of मुख्य)..”
- In the context of the previous सूत्रम् १-१-१, गुणः is ‘opposite’ of वृद्धिः.
- In Apte’s dictionary, गुणः is also mentioned as an adjective, having the meaning “a word subordinate to another in a sentence.”
- गुणः is obviously derived from the verbal root गुण (गुण्) चुरादि (१० दशम-गणीयः) सेट् उभयपदी धातुः । गुण चामन्त्रणे (= to invite) । (पाणिनीयात् धातुपाठात्)
- One who invites is expected to be modest to the invitee. Being modest requires the character to be subordinate.
अदेङ् गुणः = अ and ए, ओ Less weightage is the Characteristics of syllables/vowels अ and ए, ओ.
- The सूत्रम् १-१-१ was seen to be lending guidance to analyzing weightages of syllables, when analyzing meter of a poetry. The vowels of सूत्रम् १-१-१ would be given stronger count. But that logic does not seem to hold true here. Being of subordinate character, syllables/vowels अ, ए and ओ should be given less count. Syllable अ is given less count, but not the syllables ए, ओ.
- Syllables/vowels ए and ओ in महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा (गीता १०-६) are counted with stronger count.
सूत्रम् १-१-३ इको गुणवृद्धी ।
संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा इको गुणवृद्धी = इक: गुणवृद्धी ।
इक: is first case singular (प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च) of इक ।
- इक seems to be coined as a masculine noun पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
- इक means vowels starting from इ and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending क् The शिवसूत्र-s under reference are (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् ।
- इक means the set of vowels इ उ ऋ लृ
गुणवृद्धी is first case dual (प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च) of “गुणवृद्धि”
- “गुणवृद्धी” seems to be coined as a compounded masculine noun सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
- गुण: च वृद्धि: च इति गुणवृद्धी । इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः ।
For overall meaning of इको गुणवृद्धी
- गुण: च वृद्धि: च would imply that the vowels इ उ ऋ लृ would have both the weak and strong characteristics.
- Actually शिवसूत्र-s (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् । mention only the गुणरूप-s, the weak vowels.
- This सूत्रम् १-१-३ brings out the वृद्धिरूप-s ई, ऊ, दीर्घ-ऋ and दीर्घ-लृ of these vowels, which are not explicit in the शिवसूत्र-s.
- The logic for analyzing meters of poetry, that vowels with weak character will get less count and vowels with strong character will get larger count is very much valid for the vowels covered by this सूत्रम् १-१-३.
Notes for these three aphorisms together.
- The three aphorisms together explain the strong or weak characters of all the vowels covered in the शिवसूत्र-s (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् । ए ओ ङ् । ऐ औ च् ।
- In doing this classification the mathematical concept of set-theory seems to have been applied ! It classifies the largest set of vowels स्वराः into three sub-sets
- those having strong character (आ) and ऐ औ च् ।
- Those having weak character अ and ए ओ ङ् ।
- Those having both weak and strong characters इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् ।
- By doing this classification, these three aphorisms together give manifestation (अभिव्यक्तिः) to आ, ई, ऊ, दीर्घ-ऋ and दीर्घ-लृ which are not explicit in the शिवसूत्र-s.
The largest set of vowels स्वराः is itself a sub-set of basic letters वर्णानि covered in all the 14 शिवसूत्र-s. It seems logical that first three aphorisms in अष्टाध्यायी explain the characteristics of the set of vowels स्वराः. Rather it is appealing that अष्टाध्यायी starts off with these three aphorisms since basic letters वर्णानि there again vowels स्वराः are the foundations of a highly phonetic and refined and well-structured language as संस्कृतम् ।