अष्टाध्याय्यध्ययनम् (1)

अष्टाध्याय्यध्ययनम् (1)
सूत्रम् १-१-१ वृद्धिरादैच् ।
संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा वृद्धिरादैच् = वृद्धिः आत्+ऐच् ।
वृद्धिः = This is a grammatical term संज्ञा. Here वृद्धिः suggests the greater weightage being the characteristics of the vowels.

  • वृद्धिः is a noun derived from the verbal root वृध् (= to grow, to become larger, stronger, greater)

आदैच् = आत्+ऐच् ।

  • आदैच् seems to be coined as a compounded masculine noun सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
    • आत् च ऐच् च इति आदैच् । समाहार-द्वंद्वः ।
  • आत् = The vowel आ. In the aphorisms here, singular vowel is given an ending त् to denote that it is to be understood all by itself.
  • ऐच् = Vowels starting from ऐ and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending च् The शिवसूत्रम् under reference is ऐ औ च्. Hence ऐच् means the vowels ऐ and औ.

On the whole वृद्धिरादैच् means the vowels आ, ऐ and औ have the characteristics of being strong.
When analyzing meters of poetry, syllables of strong character would be counted with higher weightage. The सूत्रम् lends guidance also on analyzing syllables when analyzing meters of poetry.

सूत्रम् १-१-२ अदेङ् गुणः ।
संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा अदेङ् गुणः = अत्-एङ् गुणः ।

अदेङ् = अत्-एङ् ।

  • अदेङ् seems to be coined as a compounded masculine noun सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
    • अत् च एङ् च इति अदेङ् । समाहार-द्वंद्वः ।
  • अत् = The vowel अ। In the aphorisms here, singular vowel is given an ending त् to denote that it is to be understood all by itself.
  • एङ् = Vowels starting from ए and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending ङ् The शिवसूत्रम् under reference is ए ओ ङ् ।

गुणः = This is a grammatical term संज्ञा. Here गुणः suggests less weightage being the characteristics of the vowels, which are noted by अदेङ्.

  • गुणः is first case singular (प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च) of masculine noun (पुल्लिङ्गि नाम) गुण.
  • In Apte’s dictionary, 28 different meanings of the word गुणः are mentioned, One of these meanings is “A secondary element, a subordinate part (opposite of मुख्य)..”
    • In the context of the previous सूत्रम् १-१-१, गुणः is ‘opposite’ of वृद्धिः.
  • In Apte’s dictionary, गुणः is also mentioned as an adjective, having the meaning “a word subordinate to another in a sentence.”
  • गुणः is obviously derived from the verbal root गुण (गुण्) चुरादि (१० दशम-गणीयः) सेट् उभयपदी धातुः । गुण चामन्त्रणे (= to invite) । (पाणिनीयात् धातुपाठात्)
    • One who invites is expected to be modest to the invitee. Being modest requires the character to be subordinate.

अदेङ् गुणः = अ and ए, ओ Less weightage is the Characteristics of syllables/vowels अ and ए, ओ.
Notes –

  1. The सूत्रम् १-१-१ was seen to be lending guidance to analyzing weightages of syllables, when analyzing meter of a poetry. The vowels of सूत्रम् १-१-१ would be given stronger count. But that logic does not seem to hold true here. Being of subordinate character, syllables/vowels अ, ए and ओ should be given less count. Syllable अ is given less count, but not the syllables ए, ओ.
    • Syllables/vowels ए and ओ in महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा (गीता १०-६) are counted with stronger count.

सूत्रम् १-१-३ इको गुणवृद्धी ।
संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा इको गुणवृद्धी = इक: गुणवृद्धी ।
इक: is first case singular (प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च) of इक ।

  • इक seems to be coined as a masculine noun पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
  • इक means vowels starting from इ and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending क् The शिवसूत्र-s under reference are (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् ।
    • इक means the set of vowels इ उ ऋ लृ

गुणवृद्धी is first case dual (प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च) of “गुणवृद्धि”

  • “गुणवृद्धी” seems to be coined as a compounded masculine noun सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
    • गुण: च वृद्धि: च इति गुणवृद्धी । इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः ।

For overall meaning of इको गुणवृद्धी

  • गुण: च वृद्धि: च would imply that the vowels इ उ ऋ लृ would have both the weak and strong characteristics.
    • Actually शिवसूत्र-s (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् । mention only the गुणरूप-s, the weak vowels.
    • This सूत्रम् १-१-३ brings out the वृद्धिरूप-s ई, ऊ, दीर्घ-ऋ and दीर्घ-लृ of these vowels, which are not explicit in the शिवसूत्र-s.
  • The logic for analyzing meters of poetry, that vowels with weak character will get less count and vowels with strong character will get larger count is very much valid for the vowels covered by this सूत्रम् १-१-३.

Notes for these three aphorisms together.

  1. The three aphorisms together explain the strong or weak characters of all the vowels covered in the शिवसूत्र-s (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् । ए ओ ङ् । ऐ औ च् ।
  2. In doing this classification the mathematical concept of set-theory seems to have been applied ! It classifies the largest set of vowels स्वराः into three sub-sets
    1. those having strong character (आ) and ऐ औ च् ।
    2. Those having weak character अ and ए ओ ङ् ।
    3. Those having both weak and strong characters इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् ।
    4. By doing this classification, these three aphorisms together give manifestation (अभिव्यक्तिः) to आ, ई, ऊ, दीर्घ-ऋ and दीर्घ-लृ which are not explicit in the शिवसूत्र-s.

The largest set of vowels स्वराः is itself a sub-set of basic letters वर्णानि covered in all the 14 शिवसूत्र-s. It seems logical that first three aphorisms in अष्टाध्यायी explain the characteristics of the set of vowels स्वराः. Rather it is appealing that अष्टाध्यायी starts off with these three aphorisms since basic letters वर्णानि there again vowels स्वराः are the foundations of a highly phonetic and refined and well-structured language as संस्कृतम् ।

-o-O-o-

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9 thoughts on “अष्टाध्याय्यध्ययनम् (1)

    • Dear Himanshu,
      What a good question !
      It seems अ and आ are not considered to be related to each other in a गुणवृद्धि-relationship, say, आ being वृद्धि of अ.
      It can be appreciated that when pronouncing इ and ई or उ and ऊ, the organs do not experience any significant change. Only the same sound is pronounced longer. That is called as वृद्धि.
      However when pronouncing आ the jaws get apart. अ is simply a guttural sound.
      For years we have thought आ being वृद्धि of अ. Is it really so ?
      How intelligently पाणिनी has put them into different सूत्र-s; आ in 1-1-1 and अ in 1-1-2; also not clubbing them into 1-1-3.
      Science of phonetics at its minutest, best ?

  1. Further, there is already an English Translation of Ashtadhyayi and its commentary in English also available for download online:

    http://www.archive.org/download/ashtadhyayitrans06paniuoft/ashtadhyayitrans06paniuoft.pdf

    Here is a lucid commentary on the selected Sutra-s in Sanskrit itself:

    http://www.archive.org/details/AshubodhaVyakaranam

    The dictionary of KV Abhyankar is downloadable for free from this site:

  2. नमो नमः “वर्धन्”-महोदय !
    तृतीयं सूत्रमस्ति “इको गुणवृद्धिः = इक: गुणवृद्धिः ।”
    यतः “इकः”-शब्दः एकवचनेनास्ति “गुणवृद्धिः”-शब्दः अपि एकवचनेनैव साधु इति मे मतिः । कथमिदम् ?

    • इको गुणवृद्धी
      इकः६।१ गुणवृद्धी१।२
      समासः-गुणश्च वृद्धिश्च गुणवृद्धी इतरेतरयोगद्वन्द्वः॥
      अर्थः-गुणः स्यात् वृद्धिः स्यात् इति गुणवृद्धि-शब्दाभ्याम् गुणवद्धी विधीयेते ते इकः स्थान एव स्याताम्।
      उदाहरणानि-भागः, पचेते, मार्ष्टि, अचैषीत् ॥
      »नवनीतः

    • इको गुणवृद्धी
      इकः६।१ गुणवृद्धी१।२
      समासः-गुणश्च वृद्धिश्च गुणवृद्धी इतरेतरयोगद्वन्द्वः॥

      Navaneethkumar has rightly reproduced the commentary. But it needs some more basic understanding of the norms of interpretation of the rules as provided by Panini himself, and not out own interpretation of common Sanskrit language.

      First of all, it has to be noted that गुणवृद्धि are to be taken as the technical terms used to denote the contents of the technically noted by the technical terms. Other words than the technical terms, संज्ञा in the शब्दशास्त्र, occurring in the सूत्र-s are meant to refer to the form of the words and not the contents denoted by them in the सूत्र-s. This has been given by Panini,

      स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा। – makes this clear. Hence in this rule, the words गुण and वृद्धि mean the content of the technical terms, गुण – अ, ए, ओ and वृद्धि = आ, ऐ, औ.

      Both the गुण and वृद्धि are to be effected in the place of इक् – |

      Now, this interpretation of the genitive इकः form of the प्रत्याहार इक् [इ-उ-ऋ-लृ]. Panini himself suggests how the use of षष्ठी is to be interpreted in the सूत्र-s among other things.

      षष्ठी स्थाने योगा – the षष्ठी mandates the word/technical term to be effected the function prescribed to be effected in the place of it – the term/word to which the षष्ठी is affixed unless the target of the prescription is mentioned. Here, इक् is used in the genitive, in the above सूत्र. Hence the interpretation, इकः स्थाने [स्याताम् – भवतः – the verb of existence related to the subject in duel गुणवृद्धी]

      Now, there is another point in the interpretation:
      गुणः स्यात् वृद्धिः स्यात् इति गुणवृद्धि-शब्दाभ्याम् –

      This is obtained by the अनुवृत्ति, – of गुणः, वृद्धिः – [यत्र स्वशब्दाभ्यां भवतः] from the preceding सूत्र – [अदेङ्] गुणः(स्यात्), वृद्धिः{आदैच्](स्यात्) (इति गुणवृद्धिशब्दाभ्यां] गुणवृद्धी (यत्र विधीयेते), [ते – उभे] इकः स्थाने [स्याताम्]
      =====
      अर्थः-गुणः स्यात् वृद्धिः स्यात् इति गुणवृद्धि-शब्दाभ्याम् गुणवद्धी विधीयेते ते इकः स्थान एव स्याताम्।

      The examples are just cited how the rules prescribing गुण and वृद्धि operate in the place of इक् letters. But the examples are given here below:

      मेद्यति, चेता, कर्ता, जयति।

      in all the above examples, the गुण prescribed by the rule generally –

      “मिदेर्गुणः” – मेद्यति, मिद्+य+ति। Here it becomes मिदेर्गुणः general prescription of गुण ends up with being interpreted as the इक् of मिद् takes गुण. of which ए is the गुण for इ due to common articulation points according to “स्थानेऽन्तरतमः” which mandates the closest of the substitutions to the resident one to which the substitution is prescribed. This is how it is to be understood. This one occurrence. A different type is prescribed:

      “सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः” अङ्गस्य गुणः – चेता, कर्ता, जयति from the verbs चि, कृ – participles are derived and जि normally derived in the present tense. The operation is due to आर्धधातुक in the first cases and सार्वधातुक suffix in the last one.

      The following two are for the वृद्धिः – due to the operation of the above rule.

      “मृजेर्वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु” makes the वृद्धि आर् applicable to ऋ in the present tense conjugation of the verb मृजू शुद्धौ। – = मार्ष्टि।

      अलावीत्। – Here the वृद्धि prescribed in लुङ् – by “सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु” in the conjugation of aorist past tense. The same is clear in अकार्षीत् – where सिच् is visible in the inflected form. In the first, it is elided by “इट ईटि” ८।२।२८ इति सिचो लोपः.

      This is almost complete interpretation though not comprehensive enough to give examples for all. इ, उ, ऋ – both गुण and वृद्धि but only selected ones given in the commentaries.

  3. Here are the references:

    “सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः”|७।३।८४| [गुणः, अङ्गस्य],
    “सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु”७।२।१ |
    “मिदेर्गुणः”७।३।८२|
    “मृजेर्बृद्धिः” ७।२।११४।

  4. H N भट्टाख्यविद्वद्भिः पाणिनीयमतं यथा |
    व्याख्यादायीति युष्माभिः योग्या वः प्रणुवे मुदा ||

    I was in fact reminded of “परिभाषा” — “व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्न हि सन्देहादलक्षणम्” of “पातञ्जलम्” after going through the discussion.

    Regards

    • The Paribhasha applies to the rules of Panini, but not the sentences like:

      सूत्रम् १-१-३ इको गुणवृद्धिः ।
      संधिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा इको गुणवृद्धिः = इक: गुणवृद्धिः ।
      इक: is first case singular (प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च) of इक ।

      इक seems to be coined as a masculine noun पुल्लिङ्गि नाम ।
      इक means vowels starting from इ and ending at the vowel or alphabet where one finds in शिवसूत्राणि the ending क् The शिवसूत्र-s under reference are (अ), इ उ ण् । ऋ लृ क् ।
      इक means the set of vowels इ उ ऋ लृ

      in the above blog writing, distorting the original wordings of Panini.

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